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Career Counseling

Career Counseling

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Career Counseling

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  1. Career Counseling Norberto Orozco Portales III IV – 21 BSE Values Education

  2. CHANGE IS THE ONLY THING CONSTANT! • Many people may view the world of work as a rigid sociological structure, it is in fact, a dynamic and constantly changing entity.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE CHANGES THROUGH: • Long Term trends • Short Term trends

  4. Causes of Long Term trends • Population factors • Sociological factors • Economic factors • Technological factors

  5. Causes of Short term trends • Calamities – Human Disasters and Natural Disasters • New Directions in Fashion, Recreation, and other activities • Seasonal Variations • Short term economic factors • Strikes, unexpected surpluses of shortages of raw materials or raw goods, and the likes

  6. Occupation Represent to a set of tasks widely recognized as usually performed by a single worker

  7. Even though the work structure is subject to some continual changes, there is sufficient stability to permit classification and analysis. One approach is through industrial view (work setting where the task is performed) and occupation (what the worker actually does).

  8. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks • Has been the most widely used • Has provided classification systems for occupations, a basis for filling career materials, a method for relating beginning positions to jobs available for experienced workers, a system for identifying workers whose skills and abilities approximate those needed in the fields with shortages, brief occupational description developed from jo analysis reports.

  9. Occupational grouping • Occupations can be grouped and classified by many systems each of which has its own advantage or its unique contribution. • System that is best for specific situation or purpose depends on the desired goal, there an be no single over-all best method. • The method that best achieves the goal is the best one to use.

  10. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks • 1939, 1949, 1965, 1977, 1991 revisions. • 1991 – consists of two volumes including 12, 741 occupation description. 1/5 are new and revised. • 9 categories  83 occupationally specific divisions  subdivided into 564 groups

  11. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks 0 / 1 Professional, Technical, Managerial 2 Clerical and Sales 3 Service Occupations 4 Agricultural Occupations 5 Processing Occupations 6 Machine Trades Occupations 7 Benchwork Occupations 8 Structural Work Occupations 9 Miscellaneous Occupations

  12. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks 0 / 1 Professional, Technical, Managerial 00/01 Occupations in architecture, engineering, and surveying 02 Occupations in mathematics and physical sciences 03 Computer related occupations 04 Occupation in Life Sciences

  13. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks – Occupational Code No. 0 / 1 Professional, Technical, Managerial CATEGORY 04 Occupation in Life Sciences DIVISION 045 Occupation in Psychology GROUP

  14. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks – Occupational Code No. The second set of 3 digits in the code number provides the worker function ratings for the tasks performed in the occupations. The DOT assumes that all occupations required the worker to be involved with DATA, PEOPLE, THINGS (d-p-t) in some degree of complexity.

  15. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks – Occupational Code No. The levels of relationship are as follows:

  16. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks – Occupational Title Base Title – is the name most frequently used for a specific job. Carpenter from bridge carpenters, mine carpenters, etc. There is also an alternate title. Master definition – duties that is common to an occupation with different titles Term Titles – differ widely in the job knowledge required, the task performed, or the job location.

  17. Dictionary of Occupational Tasks – Industry Designation Is a crucial part of the title. It may tell one or more of the following about an occupation: • Location of the occupation (hotel&rest.;mach. Shop) • Type of Duties associated with occupation (clean;dye & press) • Products manufactured (textiles; optical goods) • Processes used (electroplating; petrol. Refin.) • Raw Materials Used (nonfer. Metal alloys; stone work)

  18. Use of the Dictionary of Occupational Tasks (DOT) • Useful way of helping the individuals • It demonstrates the interrelationships that exist in the world of work • It helps the user to relate self and abilities, interests, and goals to the world of work.

  19. GUIDE FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPLORATION • Published as a companion of the DOT. It includes an occupational grouping system based on extensive research with various well known interest inventories. It is particularly important to career counselors because it provides a useful bridge between interest inventory results and the DOT. The GOE is based on 12 interest factors or very broad occupational clusters. Provides brief information about basic questions – what do you do? What skills you need?

  20. GUIDE FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPLORATION • Artistic –interest in creative expression of feelings and ideas. • Scientific – interest in discovering, collecting and analyzing information about ht natural world and in applying scientific findings to problems in medicine life sciences, and natural sciences. • Plants and Animals – interest in activities involving plants and animals, usually in an outdoor setting. • Protective – interest in the use of authority to protect the people and property • Mechanical – interest in applying mechanical principles to practical situations, using machines, hand tools or techniques. • Industrial –interest in repetitive, concrete, organized activities in a factory setting. • Business Detail – interest in organized, clearly defined activities requiring accuracy and attention to detail, primarily in an office setting.

  21. GUIDE FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPLORATION • Selling– interest in bringing others to appoint of view through personal persuasion, using sales and promotion techniques. • Accommodating – interest in catering to the wishes of others, usually on a one to one basis. • Humanitarian – interest in helping others with their mental, spiritual, social, physical, or vocational skills. • Leading Influencing – interest in leading and influencing others through activities involving high-level verbal and numerical activities. • Physical Performing – interest in playing activities performed before an audience. 12 interest areas  66 work groups  348 subgroups

  22. SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS • Supplies specific answers to questions about physical capacities and so forth that clients must answer as they match themselves against occupational requirements. Physical or educational restrictions that must be reckoned with in the matching process will find the volume especially useful. Existing skills can often find possible alternatives within the same related subgroup listings.

  23. OTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS • Roe’s Field and Level Classification System • Holland’s Classification System • The World-of-Work Map • Minnesota Occupational Classification System III (MOC III) • Three-Dimensional Classification • Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) • Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

  24. Roe’s Field and Level Classification System • More user friendly than DOT. • Roe’s two dimensional system classified occupations by field,, or the focus of activity of the work, and level which pertains to the responsibility involved in the complexity of the work. He identified eight fields which constitute the rows in her classification system.

  25. Roe’s Field and Level Classification System – 8 Fields • Service (social work, counseling, protective services) • Business Contact (Sales) • Organization (Managerial Occupations) • Technology (engineering,, machine trades, transportation) • Outdoor (Farming, Fishing) • Science (Physical, Biological, and Human Sciences) • General Culture (Education, Journalism, Humanities) • Arts and entertainment (Artists, Dancers, Actors)

  26. Roe’s Field and Level Classification System – 6 levels of performance Based on the degree of responsibility, capacity, or skills required: • Professional and Managerial I: Top Administrators and Managers • Professional and Managerial II: Narrower, more circumscribed autonomy than managers level I. • Semi-professional and small business: low level responsibility of others • Skilled: specialized training required • Semiskilled: some specialized training, but less skilled • Unskilled: no specialized training required

  27. Roe’s Field and Level Classification System Advantage: it can provide clients with brief overview of the entire occupational structure, some general ideas about the activities involved, an indication of the linkages that exist among jobs and basic understanding of the degree of responsibilities involved in various jobs. Disadvantage: does not provide detailed descriptions of the duties performed in various occupations, lacks information about aptitudes required to acquire the job-related skills, and tell us little about the training time

  28. Roe’s Field and Level Classification System Advantage: it can provide clients with brief overview of the entire occupational structure, some general ideas about the activities involved, an indication of the linkages that exist among jobs and basic understanding of the degree of responsibilities involved in various jobs. Disadvantage: does not provide detailed descriptions of the duties performed in various occupations, lacks information about aptitudes required to acquire the job-related skills, and tell us little about the training time

  29. Holland’s Classification System • Holland’s theory of vocational choice was presented – fundamental proposition is that, in order to be satisfied with their jobs, people must select occupations that are congruent with their personality types. • Six types of Personality: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. • Work environments also have personalities

  30. Holland’s Classification System • Carpenter RIE • Bridge Inspector RSI • Fashion Artist AEI • Psychologist, Counseling SIA • Career Counselor SAE • Cashier CSE • Auditor, internal ICR • Composer ASE

  31. Holland’s Classification System Work environments are rarely homogenous and suggests that the best approach is to help potential workers focus on that aspect of environment that will be most influential. Is only useful to those practitioners who are interested in applying his theory in their work. Size and complexity of the work environment, relative power, and the influence of various people in the environment and the perceptions of the worker also influence how the environment will affect the worker.

  32. The World-of-Work Map • Based on a series of studies and position papers and is an extension of Holland’s Hexagon. It is more useful than the Holland’s classification system because it is difficult to see relationships among the occupations within the three-letter codes. Some choices may be overlooked.

  33. The World-of-Work Map • It shows the location of the twenty-three job families based on their relationships to four primary work tasks: Working with DATA, PEOPLE, THINGS, and IDEAS. • Job Families (analogous to Holland) –Business Contact(Enterprising), Business Operations(Conventional), Technical(Realistic), Science(Investigative), Arts(Artistic) & Social Service(Social).

  34. Minnesota Occupational Classification System III (MOC III) • Was developed for use with the theory of work adjustment. • Classifies occupations into sets of related occupations called taxons on the basis of abilities required to perform the job and the reinforcers available in the work environment.

  35. Minnesota Occupational Classification System III (MOC III) • Jobs are categorized into 8 Categories based on Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motors Skills • Reinforcements provided by the occupations are also categorized into 8 based into the extent to which they reinforce: Internal Values, Social Values, Environmental Values • The 8 by 8 classification system resulted in 64 taxons 729 subtaxons which included all occupations (DOT 3rd edition)

  36. Minnesota Occupational Classification System III (MOC III) • Flexibility of the work environment (FX – Low, Moderate, High) • Occupational Prestige (PR – Average, Moderate, Moderately High, High) • Occupational Aptitude Patterns (OAP) • Schedule of occupational reinforcers (SCH – Fixed, Variable, Ratio or Interval)

  37. Minnesota Occupational Classification System III (MOC III) Advantage: -It has many uses including helping people who have taken assessment devices locate work environments that correspond to their personalities –very comprehensive. Disadvantage: -very complex -because MOC III relies heavily on the 2nd edition of DOT, the utility of some of the information is questionable.

  38. Three-Dimensional Classification • Cubistic; is an example of direct application of DOT concepts. • Each job can be described in terms of its relationship to DATA-PEOPLE-THINGS. • Classes –2 HIGH, 1 AVERAGE, 0 LOW

  39. Three-Dimensional Classification

  40. Three-Dimensional Classification • Performing Arts (H-A-L) entertaining an audience through dancing, acting, or announcing, and teaching and directing these activities. • Education and Social Work (H-H-L) teaching, counseling, and providing other social services. • Medical Services (H-H-L) preventing or diagnosing and treating diseases and injuries of people and animals.

  41. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) • Super(1957) proposes a system using a field and level approach for two dimensions that is quite similar to Roe’s primary focus and level. • Industrial Approach – investigating the setting where the tasks are performed: classification of industries/setting rather than occupation. • The SIC divides industries into 10 plus 1 miscellaneous group. • It was developed to provide a framework for reporting industrial and occupational data collected by various governmental agencies.

  42. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) • Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Hunting, Trapping • Mining (Energy) • Construction • Manufacturing • Transportation, Communication, Public Utilities • Wholesale Trade • Retail Trade • Finance, Insurance, Real Estate • Services • Public Administration • Non-classifiable Establishments

  43. Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) • Most classification systems have been developed to meet a particular need. DOT great depression 1930s, GOE translate interest inventory scores into occupational structure, SIC developed to provide a framework for reporting industrial and occupational data collected by various governmental agencies. • There is a need to bridge the differing methods.

  44. Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) • 1940s decennial census of that year, followed by the formation of an interagency committee in ‘60  publication of SOC ‘77  revision ’80. • Formed for the express purpose of developing a mechanism that would maximize the analytical usefulness of data on labor force, employment, & income collected by various agencies, interagency committee established a set of principles that largely identify the advantage incorporated in the system that they developed.

  45. Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) • Designed to cover all occupations where work is performed for profit, including family-oriented enterprises. Both military and civilian workers are included. • Uses a four-level system  22 divisions 60 major groups which are represented by two digit code from “11-Officials and Administrators, Public Administrators”to”99-Miscellaneous Occupations”  212 minor groups  538 unit groups.

  46. SUMMARY • We have considered several classification systems which are all widely used. • None is ideal for every situation – all have advantages and disadvantages. • Again—classification systems provide a frame of reference that is helpful in understanding occupations and how they relate to one another. WAKAS! 