Career Counseling Chapters 11 & 6 Elementary and Middle School Children with Disabilities
Career DevelopmentMiddle and High School years • Critical time of career path. • Broaden career horizons • Learn decision making skills • Acquire vocational skills • Appreciation of themselves
Eight Elements of Career Education by OSU • Career Awareness • Self-Awareness • Appreciation and Attitudes • Decision-Making Skills • Economic Awareness • Skill Awareness and Beginning Competence • Employability Skills • Educational Awareness
Programming for Career Development • Planning by a team of professionals, parents and representatives of community. • Materials and learning experiences of developmental level of students. • Based on needs of students. • Based on measurable objectives • Evaluation plan • Delivered by highly skills
Program Development and Change • If changing a program, rationale for change must be communicated • Develop support for Change • Teachers and Principals • The “We’ve always done it this way people” • Must be endorsed by education leaders.
The Concept of Career Development • Theoretical Change- • E.g. All elementary schools develop a vocational self-concept, be aware of major groups of occupations, develop an awareness of plan for future, develop decision making skills. • Rational/Empirical base-Positivist Change- • Changing stereotypes • Developing a career district philosophy
Establishing Needs • Rural vs. Urban Needs • What are the needs and possible implications? • Needs assessment of the area? • How do we start? • Who are our students? • What are their needs? • What is the best approach to meeting their needs? • Steering Committee • Needs Assessment Survey (p.312)
Writing Goals and Objectives Regarding Career Education • Long Range Goals • Broad • Short Range Goals • Focused • Observable and measurable. • State and district PPO’s.
Career Development Competencies • Career Development Competencies by Area and Level • ELEMENTARY MIDDLE/JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL ADULT • Self-KnowledgeKnowledge of the importance of self-concept. Knowledge of the influence of a positive self-concept. Understanding the influence of a positive self-concept. Skills to maintain a positive self-concept. Skills to interact with others. Skills to interact with others. Skills to interact positively with others. Skills to maintain effective behaviors. Awareness of the importance of growth and change. Knowledge of the importance of growth and change. Understanding the impact of growth and development. Understanding developmental changes and transitions. • Educational and Occupational ExplorationAwareness of the benefits of educational achievement. Knowledge of the benefits of educational achievement to career opportunities. Understanding the relationship between educational achievement and career planning. Skills to enter and participate in education and training. Awareness of the relationship between work and learning. Understanding the relationship between work and learning. Understanding the need for positive attitudes toward work and learning. Skills to participate in work and lifelong learning. Skills to understand and use career information. Skills to locate, understand, and use career information. Skills to locate, evaluate, and interpret career information. Skills to locate, evaluate, and interpret career information. Awareness of the importance of personal responsibility and good work habits. Knowledge of skills necessary to seek and obtain jobs. Skills to prepare to seek, obtain, maintain, and change jobs. Skills to prepare to seek, obtain, maintain, and change jobs. Awareness of how work relates to the needs and functions of society. Understanding how work relates to the needs and functions of the economy and society. Understanding how societal needs and functions influence the nature and structure of work. Understanding how the needs and functions of society influence the nature and structure of work. • Career PlanningUnderstanding how to make decisions. Skills to make decisions. Skills to make decisions. Skills to make decisions. Awareness of the interrelationship of life roles. Knowledge of the interrelationship of life roles. Understanding the interrelationship of life roles. Understanding the impact of work on individual and family life. Awareness of different occupations and changing male/female roles. Knowledge of different occupations and changing male/female roles. Understanding the continuous changes in male/female roles. Understanding the continuing changes in male/female roles. Awareness of the career planning process. Understanding the process of career planning. Skills in career planning. Skills to make career transitions.
Career Development Competencies • http://www.rop.santacruz.k12.ca.us/teachers/STC/competencies.doc
Program Implementation (page 319 for example) • Consultation • Classroom Instruction • Assessment • Career Information • Counseling • Placement • Referral • Outreach • Follow-up • Work Experience
Career Development in Elementary Schools • Building Connections for Students Between Academic Skills and the Future • Introducing Students to "Real Life" Jobs. • Helping Students See Themselves As Part of Future Job Force. • http://icdl.uncg.edu/ft/081199-07.html
Career Development in Middle Schools • Grade 6 • Personality assessment; Self-esteem and social awareness; and The workplace. Grade 7 • Career development activities related to learning styles and the exploration of interests, abilities, and work preferences; and Exploration of career clusters. Grade 8 Career development activities related to job exploration and career clusters; and How to choose and find a job.
Clients with Special Needs • People with Disabilities • Cultural minorities • Delayed entrants to workforce • Traditional homemakers • Military personnel • Ex-offenders
People with Disabilities • “People First” Language-Important • Disability-judged to be deviant from an acceptable norm • Handicap-barriers, demands and environmental stress placed on person by aspect of society.
Rehabilitation • Overcoming many kinds of issues, including physical disabilities, mental retardation, alcoholism, drug addiction, delinquency, and crime • Vocational Rehab-returning a disabled worker to a state of re-employablity. • Rehab act of 1973 • Public Law 94-142 • IDEA • ADA of 1990 • State Program are matched 20 to 80 • IWRP • Job Coaching • Work Experiences • Enclave
Economically Disadvantaged • Broad definition, used by federal and states differently. • Two subgroups • Limited education (quality or quantity) • Geographic locale • Miles (1984) • The Chronically Poor • Unemployed or Newly Disadvantaged • The Underemployed
Economically Disadvantaged (how to assist) • 4- part program • Access to Adult Education • Personal and/or Career Counseling • Information about the World of Work • Access to appropriate vocational Training and placement
Cultural Minorities • Must deal with unique paradigms of people. • Language barriers • Histories of hardship and discrimination • Understand the culture of the client
African Americans • Until recently, largest minority group. • Discrimination and limited educational opportunities • Historically • Lower earnings, • Higher Unemployment rates • Growing family instability • Occupational segragation
Hispanic Americans • Largest Group • Issues • Recency of immigration • Limited English • Substandard Educational Backgrounds • Culture Shock • Alienation • Adapting to a new culture
Asian Americans • Fastest Growing Minority Group • Marked cultural values different from white European Americans • Lineal social values • Allow parents to make career decisions for them.
Native Americans • Most diverse • 450 tribes in US • What the tribe does, I do. Lack of tribal support. • Poverty • Historic discrimination • Relocation • Tribal customs • Unpredictable religious holidays and ceremonies.
Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Individuals • Discrimination • Lack of legal leverage • Double edge sword • Woman and homosexual • Triple Whammy • Woman, homosexual and one of color. • May have non-traditional interest patterns
Older Workers Myths • Myth: Older workers can't or won't learn new skills. Reality: Those over 50 are proving their ability to learn new skills by becoming the fastest growing group of Internet users. And career-changers in their 40s and 50s are taking courses to enhance their skills. • Myth: Older workers don't stay on the job long. Reality: Workers between 45 and 54 stayed on the job twice as long as those 25 to 34, according to the Bureau of labor Statistics in 1998. • Myth: Older workers take more sick days than younger workers. Reality: Attendance records are actually better for older workers than for younger ones. • Myth: Older workers aren't flexible or adaptable. Reality: Because they've seen many approaches fail in the workplace, they are more likely to question change. But they can accept new approaches as well as younger workers can as long as the rationale is explained. • Myth: Older workers are more expensive. Reality: The costs of more vacation time and pensions are often outweighed by low turnover among older workers and the fact that higher turnover among other groups translates into recruiting, hiring, and training expenses.
Older Workers Characteristics • As we age our personality Traits do become more fixed; however if we were flexible as a young person we can be flexible as an older person. • Older workers are as productive as younger workers and in some cases, more. • Being overqualified for a job may be source of unhappiness for older worker • May be taking job to supplement pensions or SSI.
Older Workers Characteristics • Characteristics of supervisor is important. • Evidence that brain cells are destroyed with age. Learn just as well as younger workers, primarily because we develop successful learning strategies. • Strength decline is more a function of lack of exercise than age up to a point. • Hearing and sight decline with age. Assistive technologies play a vital role.