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COMMUNICATION. Tuğçe AYDIN. COMMUNICATION. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties. Basic Model Of Communication. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION. 1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels

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  2. COMMUNICATION Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties

  3. BasicModelOfCommunication

  4. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION 1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels 4-Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding 5-Feedback

  5. Senders & Receivers Each have goals and objectives The sender may want to change the receiver’s mind The receiver may not want to have his mind changed

  6. Transmitters and Receptors is the equipment by which information is sent Information can be sent verbally and nonverbally

  7. Messages and Channels are the vehicles by which information is communicated. direct expressions symbolic representations

  8. Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding Decoding is the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into interpretations that can be understood. Meaningsare the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist whitin individuals, and act as a set of “filters” through which the decoded messages are interpreted. Encoding is the process by which messages are put into symbolic form

  9. Feedback is the process by which the receiver “reacts” to the sender’s message It is necessary to let the sender know that the message was • actually received, • encoded, • ascribed with the same meaning that the sender intended

  10. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION It is impossible to avoid communicating Communication is largely nonverbal Context affects communication Meanings are in people, not in words

  11. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION (cont’d) Communication is irreversible Noise affects communication Communication is circular Creating common goal is essential Communication has effects

  12. VERBAL AND NONVERBAL MESSAGES Basic ways in which people send and receive messages

  13. Verbal Messages Messages sent verbally are messsages expressed in words The science of semantics

  14. Nonverbal Messages About 65 percent of the meanings people get from a communication Voice Physical Movements Space “your lips tell me ‘no,no’ but there is ‘yes,yes’ in your eyes”

  15. ADAPTING MESSSAGES TO PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE increase the probabilty that communication will be successful Language Format Style

  16. Language Appropriate language is the language that has been adapted to the receiver while retaining a naturalness with respect to the sender

  17. Format Depends on the receiver (audience) and on the purpose.

  18. Style Formal/informal, Simple/complex, Natural/flamboyant


  20. Arena Adjectives selected by both the participant and his or her peers Represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware. “I know my name, and so do you.”

  21. Façade Adjectives selected only by the participant, but not by any of their peers Represents information about the participant of which their peers are unaware “I have not told you, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is.”

  22. Blind Spot Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers “we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot.”

  23. Unknown Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers “I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place.”

  24. 55 adjectives used to describe the participant


  26. Tangible Differences Gender Age Race National or Cultural Origin Socioeconomic Class Education Level Urban or Rural Residence

  27. GENDER Major influence on the way we communicate with others. When men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertive and self-confident. Women are more likely than men to express their emotions, to reveal how they feel about a situation.

  28. AGE Young people and old people communicate in different ways. We do tend to judge a statement by different standards if we know the speaker’s age. A person’s age or gender is not important in judging the truth or wisdom of what that person says.

  29. Their maturity, their educational backgrounds, and the different eras in which they grew up make a Generation Gap inevitable.

  30. Intangible Differences Perception Motivation Tunnel Vision Ego Defensiveness Negative Emotions

  31. PERCEPTION Our physical limitations are a screen through which we perceive things that exist in our environment. Our perception is also limited by psychological screens that we have developed. Choosing from among the many things within our range of perception those that we will notice, and block out the rest is called “Selective Perception”

  32. Mother: Will you straighten up your room?Teenager: Why? What’s messy?

  33. Selective Perception • Allows us not only to block out things that are there, but also to see more things than are there. • Leads us to make our own reality! • Most clearly seen in the human tendency to stereotype others.

  34. MOTIVATION A Motive is a Reason For Action! The most strongest motivations are those that are most personal. We are motivated by money, fame, power, love, status, security, skill, ambition...etc It can be both positive or negative.

  35. TUNNEL VISION A closed way of thinking, especially aboutabstract topics, such as religion andpolitics. • The person with tunnel vision is one who has firmly fixed ideas • The opposite side is open-mindedness • Person with tunnel visionhas attitude seems to say; “I’ve already made up my mind, Don’t confuse me with the facts!!!”

  36. EGO DEFENSIVENESS A response pattern in which a person who follows this pattern sees a disagreement as a personal attact . A self-centeredcommunication More than just being selfish

  37. NEGATIVE EMOTIONS Almost always obstacles to good communication! Especially true if the emotion is uncontrolled, unfocused, or misdirected.

  38. DISTORTION BARRIERS • Distractions • Semantic Problems • Absence Of Feedback • Climate • Status And Power Differences

  39. Distractions It occurs where people are constantlycoming in andleaving for one reason oranother, and experincedthe frustration thatis created by this distractingtraffic flow.

  40. Semantic Problems Distortion in communication comes from semantics- the use of words or expressions which have a different meaning for the sender or receiver. Created when communicators use technical jargon- usage common to a particular field or specialization.

  41. Status And Power Differences Differences in communications are likely toparallel the differences inpower. Imbalance or asymmetry innegotiating power leads the high power partyto perform significantlybetter than thelow powerparty.

  42. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Be Exact Use the word “is” carefully Avoid Overgeneralization Be sensitive to connotative meaning Do not to overuse you or your Count from 1 to 10

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