Civil Rights • When Did segergation start?
Civil Rights • Indentured Servants • Paid with years of labor for trip to new colonies
Civil Rights • There was no mention of Slavery in the Articles of Confederation
Civil Rights • Constitutional Convention
Civil Rights • John Jay, great supporter of the Constitution after its creation and an author of The Federalist wrote in 1786, "It is much to be wished that slavery may be abolished. The honour of the States, as well as justice and humanity, in my opinion, loudly call upon them to emancipate these unhappy people. To contend for our own liberty, and to deny that blessing to others, involves an inconsistency not to be excused."
Civil Rights • Patrick Henry, the great Virginian patriot, was outspoken on the issue, despite his citizenship in a slave state. In 1773, he wrote, "I believe a time will come when an opportunity will be offered to abolish this lamentable evil. Everything we do is to improve it, if it happens in our day; if not, let us transmit to our descendants, together with our slaves, a pity for their unhappy lot and an abhorrence of slavery."
Civil Rights • The Constitution has often been called a living tribute to the art of compromise. In the slavery question, this can be seen most clearly. The Convention had representatives from every corner of the United States, including, of course, the South, where slavery was most pronounced. Slavery,
in fact, was the backbone of the primary industry of the South, and it was accepted as a given that agriculture in the South without slave labor was not possible. nation.
Though slaves were not cheap by any measure, they were cheaper than hiring someone to do the same work. The cultivation of rice, cotton, and tobacco required slaves to work the fields from dawn to dusk.
If the nation did not guarantee the continuation of slavery to the South, it was questioned whether they would form their own nation.
Slavery is seen in the Constitution in a few key places. The first is in the Enumeration Clause, where representatives are apportioned. Each state is given a number of representatives based on its population - in that population, slaves, called "other persons," are counted as three-fifths of a whole person.
This compromise was hard-fought, with Northerners wishing that slaves, legally property, be uncounted, much as mules and horses are uncounted
. Southerners, however, well aware of the high proportion of slaves to the total population in their states, wanted them counted as whole persons despite their legal status. The three-fifths number was a ratio used by the Congress in contemporary legislation and was agreed upon with little debate.
n Article 1, Section 9, Congress is limited, expressly, from prohibiting the "Importation" of slaves, before 1808.
The slave trade was a bone of contention for many, with some who supported slavery abhorring the slave trade.
The 1808 date, a compromise of 20 years, allowed the slave trade to continue, but placed a date-certain on its survival. Congress eventually passed a law outlawing the slave trade that became effective on January 1, 1808.
The Missouri Compromise of 1820 • Created using Tom Snyder's Mapmaker's Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999.
This compromise was another way the South and the North argued over slavery. The Compromise of 1820 required that all free states and slave states were to be equal.
There was a balance of free and slave states, there were eleven each. The state of Missouri was a slave state and wanted to come to the North as a free state.
The state of Missouri was a slave state and wanted to come to the North as a free state. This would make a big deal because this would make the balance uneven, and if this happened it would not be approved.
That's not the last of hope for the South because the state of Maine also wanted to join the North and become a free state.
The U. S. Congress decided to make Maine a free state because it didn't have any slaves in the state and Missouri did. They had about 10,000 slaves already in it, and the South didn't want to free all those slaves. Missouri then stayed a slave state.
The Compromise of 1850 • Another 30 years past and the North and South made and even bigger compromise. This compromise was called the Compromise of 1850. This compromise would try to settle the slavery question once and for all by making the North and South happy. The compromise allowed the slaves to work for the South, but it did not allow the slave trade to continue in Washington D.C.
Created using Tom Snyder's Mapmaker's Toolkit, Tom Snyder Productions, 1999. • The state of California was made a free state by the U.S. Congress, but if the balance of free and slave states were to be broken it would not be allowed (like in the Missouri Compromise of 1820.) There just had to be another discussion about the state of Texas it wanted to own the territory of New Mexico.
The compromise would give Texas an amount of ten million dollars to give up it's claims of New Mexico's territory. This would provide much of the needed money to pay for Texas's debts. After planning they decided to make the Texas boundary as it is to day.
The Compromise of 1850 made an even stricter law which was the Fugitive Slave Act, the North just had to stop this act too. The Fugitive Slave Act made the North return the slaves back to their rightful owners that had escaped from the Underground Railroad.
This railroad was for slaves that escaped from their owners and who had gone to the free states of the north or parts of Canada.
The compromise was successful by keeping the nation united. This was only temporary until more further on when the South wanted to separate from the North.
The South wanted to just take the slaves back, but they had to show evidence to the U.S. Congress to prove they were their rightful owners. If they had no evidence the slaves would be free and would not go back and work for the South on the plantations.
Stephen A. Douglas- longed to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be sliced into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska.
Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.
This Kansas-Nebraska Act ran into the problem of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which forbade slavery in the proposed Nebraska Territory. Douglas was forced to propose the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported the Kansas-Nebraska
The Kansas-Nebraska act wrecked two compromises: the Compromise of 1820 which the act repealed; and the Compromise of 1850, which northern opinion repealed indirectly.
The DemocraticParty was shattered by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. • The Republican Party was formed in the Mid-West and it had moral protests against the gains of slavery.
It included Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other foes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Southerners hated the Republican Party.
Most of the people who came into Kansas were just westward-moving pioneers. A minority of the people moving to Kansas was financed by groups of northern abolitionists who wanted to see Kansas a free state
. The New England Emigrant Aid Company was one of these groups. • In 1855, the day that the first territorial legislatures were to be elected, many pro-slavery people came in from slave- state Missouri to vote, enacting pro-slavery officials.
The slavery supporters set up their own government at Shawnee Mission. The free-soilers then set up their own government in Topeka, giving the Kansas territory two governments. (Kansas and Nebraska territories were to have popular sovereignty in choosing slavery according to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Dread Scott, a slave who had lived with his master (residence in Missouri) for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory, sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil.
The Supreme Court ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery.
The Fifth Amendment forbade Congress from depriving people of their property without the due process of law. The Court went further and stated that the Missouri Compromise wasunconstitutional and that Congress had no power to ban slavery from the territories, no matter what the territorial legislatures themselves wanted.
This victory delighted Southerners, while it infuriated Northerners and supporters of popular sovereignty.
The Emancipation Proclamation called for the freeing of all slaves in Confederate territory, except in locations where the Union had mostly regained control
. Lincoln did not include the freeing of slaves in the Border States for fear that they, too, would secede.
The proclamation fundamentally changed the nature of the war because it effectively removed any chance of a negotiated settlement between the North and the South. • .
The Emancipation Proclamation caused an outcry to rise from the South who said that Lincoln was trying to stir up slave rebellion. • The North now had a much stronger moral cause. It had to preserve the Union and free the slaves
The Black Codes was a series of laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated slaves. Mississippi passed the first such law in November 1865. • The Black Codes aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force.
Blacks were forced to continue to work the plantations after their emancipation due to the system of "sharecropping." Plantation owners would rent out pieces of their land to blacks and make the cost of rent higher than the return the land produced.