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Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Salt Marsh Plants Cord grass ( Spartina ) PowerPoint Presentation
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Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Salt Marsh Plants Cord grass ( Spartina )

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Salt Marsh Plants Cord grass ( Spartina )

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Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Salt Marsh Plants Cord grass ( Spartina )

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  1. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) • Salt Marsh Plants • Cord grass (Spartina) • Salt tolerant terrestrial plants • Salt glands in leaves excrete excess salts • Inhabit temperate soft-bottom coastal areas • Important sources of habitat for birds, etc. • Pickleweed (Salicornia) • Halophyte • Occurs at higher levels in marsh with less inundation by salt water • Succulent leaves help to dilute salts Fig. 12.7 Spartina Fig. 12.8 Salicornia

  2. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) • Mangroves • Salt tolerant shrubs and trees (80+ species) • Tropical terrestrial plants living in soft sediments, often organic rich and anoxic • Poor competitors • All share certain characteristics • Salt tolerance (halophytes) • Shallow, broad root system and aerial roots with pneumatophores (pores for gas exchange) • Salt glands that excrete excess salt • Tough, succulent leaves that store water • Viviparity • Inhabit highly productive ecosystems • Provide important habitat for larval and juvenile organisms • Protect shorelines against erosion and wave action

  3. Red Mangrove

  4. Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) • Mangroves • Salt tolerant shrubs and trees (80+ species) • Tropical terrestrial plants living in soft sediments, often organic rich and anoxic • Poor competitors • All share certain characteristics • Salt tolerance (halophytes) • Shallow, broad root system and aerial roots with pneumatophores (pores for gas exchange) • Salt glands that excrete excess salt • Tough, succulent leaves that store water • Viviparity • Inhabit highly productive ecosystems • Provide important habitat for larval and juvenile organisms • Protect shorelines against erosion and wave action

  5. Fig. 6.14

  6. Invertebrates - Background • Domain Eukaryota • Kingdom Animalia • Multicellular • Invertebrates – No backbone • Vertebrates – Backbone • Estimate - 97% of all animal species are invertebrates

  7. Porifera (Sponges) • Structurally simplest multicellular animals • “Complex aggregations of specialized cells” • Cellular level of organization • No true tissues • No true organs • Most sponges are marine (~9000 species) • Most speciose in shallow tropical waters • All are sessile (attached to substrate) • Diversity of shapes, sizes, colors, habitats • Encrusting sponges • Glass sponges (Hexactinellids) – Silica skeleton • Boring sponges (Ex - Cliona) • Sclerosponges – Calcium carbonate skeleton

  8. Fig. 7.2

  9. Porifera (Sponges) • Structurally simplest multicellular animals • “Complex aggregations of specialized cells” • Cellular level of organization • No true tissues • No true organs • Most sponges are marine (~9000 species) • Most speciose in shallow tropical waters • All are sessile (attached to substrate) • Diversity of shapes, sizes, colors, habitats • Encrusting sponges • Glass sponges (Hexactinellids) – Silica skeleton • Boring sponges (Ex - Cliona) • Sclerosponges – Calcium carbonate skeleton

  10. Porifera (Sponges) • Body Plan (Structure) • Ostia – Small pores through which water enters • Osculum – Large opening through which water exits • Pinacocytes – Flat cells covering outer surface • Porocytes – Canal allows water to enter • Choanocytes – Collar cells; line chambers • Beat flagella to pump water through sponge • Collar traps food particles • Spongin – Elastic protein that makes up body of many sponges • Spicules – Calcareous or siliceous structures that provide structural support and discourage predators • Amebocytes – Secrete spongin and spicules

  11. Fig. 7.1

  12. Porifera (Sponges) • Feeding • Suspension feeders • Filter feeders (active suspension feeders) • Pump water across filter (Video) • Ingest plankton and organic particles • Important consumers of particles in many areas • Reproduction • Asexual • Fragmentation • Sexual • Spawning • Gametes produced by amebocytes, not gonads • Most sponges hermaphroditic • Internal fertilization • Planktonic larva = parenchymula • Spawning  Larva  Settlement  Metamorphosis

  13. Fig. 7.4 Link: Sponge Spawning Video

  14. Cnidaria • Includes 9000+ species • Sea anemones • Corals • Jellyfishes • Body Plan • True tissues** • Perform specific functions • Body forms • Polyp • Medusa • Radial symmetry • Oral surface • Aboral surface

  15. Fig. 7.6

  16. Cnidaria • Body Plan • Systems • Nervous system • Digestive system • Cell Types • Epidermis – External cell layer • Mesoglea – Middle layer, usually acellular • Gastrodermis – Inner cell layer • Nematocysts • Stinging cells • Defense • Prey capture

  17. www.calacademy.org/research/izg/nematocyst.htm

  18. Cnidaria • Hydrozoa (Class) • Polyp forms • Often colonial • Polyps typically small • Polyps may be specialized for • Feeding • Reproduction - Some produce small medusae that produce gametes - Ciliated free-swimming planula larva  Polyp • Defense • Medusa forms – Usually small • May be colonial • Siphonophores – Colonial (Ex - Portugese man of war) • Specialized polyps for swimming, feeding, reproduction Millepora species

  19. Fig. 7.8

  20. Desmonema glaciale • Cnidaria • Scyphozoa • Medusa stage dominant • Polyps very small – produce juvenile medusae • Polyp stage absent in some species • Medusae may get very large • Ex – Cyanea capillata (Lion’s Mane) • Bell more than 2 m in diameter • Tentacles to 60+ m long • Swim by contracting bell rhythmically

  21. Cyanea capillata

  22. Anthopleura xanthogrammica • Cnidaria • Anthozoa • More species than Hydrozoa or Scyphozoa • No medusa stage • Polyps more complex than in other classes • Gut contains septa to add surface area for digestion of prey • Passive suspension feeders and predators • Solitary forms • Sea anemones – polyps may be very large • Colonial forms • Corals • Stony corals – branching and doming (massive) - Some build reefs in tropics • Soft corals • Precious corals – Protein skeleton + spicules • Gorgonians (sea whips, sea fans) – Tough protein skeleton • Sea pens – No skeleton • Sea pansies – No skeleton; some bioluminescent

  23. Branching Corals Doming Corals

  24. Soft Corals Precious Corals