WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OF PAKISTAN IJAZ -UL-HASSAN KASHIF SMALL DAMS ORGANIZATION ISLAMABAD
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT • Water Resources Management is the integrating concept for a number of water sub-sectors • hydropower • water supply and sanitation • irrigation and drainage • environment. • An integrated water resources perspective ensures that social, economic, environmental and technical dimensions are taken into account in the management and development of water resources.
OVERVIEW Pakistan is one of the world’s most arid countries, with an average rainfall of under 240 mm a year. The population and the economy are heavily dependent on an annual influx into the Indus river system (including the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers) of about 180 billion cubic meters of water, that emanates from the neighboring countries and is mostly derived from snow-melt in the Himalayas
OVERVIEW-2 The balance between population and available water already makes Pakistan one of the most water stressed countries of the world with rapid population growth it will soon enter a condition of absolute water scarcity
DECLINING PER CAPITA AVAILABILITY OF WATER IN PAKISTAN (Cubic Meters Per Capita Per Year)
WATER RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN • Rain fall • Glacier • Ground water
RAINFALL • Pakistan lies in an arid and semi arid climate zone • Sources of rainfall • Monsoon • Western disturbances • Mean Annual rainfall • Lower Indus Plain < 100 mm • Upper Indus Plain > 750 mm • Average seasonal rainfall • Kharif = 212 mm • Rabi = 53 mm
GLACIER • Catchment area of Indus basin contains some of the largest glacier in the world outside the polar region. • Glacier area of upper Indus catchment is abut 2250 Km2 and accounts about 80% of summer runoff in river. • Kabul River originates from southern Hindukush and starts rising approximately a month earlier than Indus and fulfill the irrigation requirement of late Rabi and early Kharif crops. • Snow melt account for more than 50% of the flow in Jhelum River.
Ground Water Total Groundwater Potential = 55 MAF Groundwater Abstraction = 41.5 MAF Punjab(81 % abstraction) 80 % Fresh water, 20 % Saline Sind(12 % abstraction) 23 % Fresh water & 77 % Saline NWFP (5 % Abstraction) Balochistan (1.2 % Abstraction)
INDUS WATERS TREATY, 1960 SALIENT FEATURES All waters of eastern rivers namely Ravi, Beas and Sutlej allocated to India. All waters of western rivers namely Indus, Jhelum and Chenab allocated to Pakistan except some specified uses in occupied Kashmir. Pakistan to meet the requirements of its eastern river canals from the western rivers by constructing suitable replacement works. Safeguards incorporated in the treaty to ensure unrestricted flow of waters in the western rivers.
INDUS WATERS TREATY, 1960 SALIENT FEATURES Either party constructing a work affecting the other party to inform the other party at least six months in advance and supply necessary details to enable the other party to satisfy itself that the proposed work does not adversely affect the other party. Permanent Indus commission constituted to watch implementation of the treaty and resolve by negotiations any problem arising thereof. Procedure for settlement of differences and disputes outlined. Differences and disputes first to be resolved by negotiations by the permanent Indus commission failing which procedure for settling such
INDUS BASIN PROJECTS DAMS i) Terbela on River Indus. ii) Mangla on River Jhehlum NEW BARRAGES i) Chashma Barrage on River Indus ii) New Rasul Barrage on River Jhehlum iii) New Marala Barrage on River Chenab iv) Qadirabab Barrage on River Chenab v) New Sidhnai Barrage on River Ravi vi) Mailsi Syphon on River Sutlej
INDUS BASIN PROJECTS NEW LINK CANALS i)Chashma Jhelum Link (C-J Link) ii) Taunsa Panjnad Link (T-P Link) iii) Rasul Qadirabad Link (R-Q Link) iv) Qadirabad Balloki Lin (Q-B Link) v) Balloki Sulemanki Link II (B-S Link II) vi) Trimmu Sidhnai Link (T-S Link) vii) Sidhnai – Milsi – Bahawal Link (S-M-B Link) OLD BARRAGES REMODELLED. i) Trimmu Barrage ii) Balloki Barrage
RAISING OF MANGLA DAM The capacity of Mangla Dam has been reduced by 19.22 % due to silting Raising of Mangla Dam is in progress, main features are: - Increase in height = 40 feet Additional storage = 3.1 MAF Additional power = 1000 GWh
SALIENT FEATURES OF ACCORD 1991 Existing uses of provinces remain untouched and protected. N.W.F.P / Baluchistan projects which are under execution are provided their authorized quota of water as existing uses. Need for additional storages on the Indus and other rivers admitted and recognized for planned future agricultural development. Need for minimum escapages to sea below Kotri to check sea intrusion recognized. Further studies desired to establish minimal escapage needs below Kotri.
SALIENT FEATURES OF ACCORD 1991 • No restrictions on Baluchistan to develop water resources of Indus tributaries flowing through its area. • Need for establishing Indus river authority for implementation of the accord recognized and accepted. • IRSA to have headquarters at Lahore and to have representation from the four provinces. • Sharing procedure laid down in Para 14(b) of the accord • Provinces are free to under take new projects within their agreed shares. • Within their allocations provinces may modify uses both system wise and period wise.
APPORTIONMENT OF WATERS OF THE INDUS RIVER SYSTEM BETWEEN THE PROVINCES-ACCORD 1991 (MAF) * INCLUDING ALREADY SANCTIONED URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL USES FOR METROPOLITAN KARACHI. ** UNGAUGED CIVIL CANALS ABOVE THE RIM STATIONS. BALANCE RIVER SUPPLIES (INCLUDING FLOOD SUPPLIES AND FUTURE STORAGES) SHALL BE DISTRIBUTED AS BELOW: PUNJAB SINDH N.W.F.P. BALUCHISTAN TOTAL: 37% 37% 14% 12% 100%
SHARING PROCEDURE PARA (14) OF ACCORD. 14(a) The System Wise Allocations will be worked out separately on ten daily basis and will be attached with this agreement as part and parcel of it. 14(b) The record of actual Average System uses for the period 1977-82 would form the guide line for developing a future regulation pattern. These ten daily uses would be adjusted pro-rata to correspond to indicated seasonal allocations of the different canal systems and would form the basis for sharing shortages and surpluses on all Pakistan basis.
APPORTIONMENT OF THE INDUS WATERS (PROMISE AND PROSPECTS) – AN HISTORIC ACCORD: 21 MARCH 1991 MAIN FEATURES Existing uses of all provinces to be protected. Allocations to different canal systems to be worked out separately on the basis of ten daily uses. These uses to help determine sharing of shortages and surpluses
WATER APPORTIONMENT ACCORD 1991 SHARING PROCEDURE Sindh holds that the available river supply should be shared between Punjab and Sindh on the basis of para (2) accord allocations reflected in para 14(a) of the accord. Punjab emphasizes that the relevant clause for sharing of available river supply is para 14 (b) of the accord, which envisages sharing of shortages and surpluses on all Pakistan basis on the basis of average system uses 1978-82.
INDUS RIVER SYSTEM AUTHORITY • Comprises Five Members. One from each Province and one from Federal Government. • First Chairman Member Balochistan followed by NWFP, Punjab, Sindh and Federal. • Term of Office • Chairman One Year • Member Three Years
DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN IRSA Decisions taken by majority votes. In case of equality of votes, chairman exercises casting vote. Aggrieved party to approach Council of Common Interest for redressal.
PAKISTAN WATER STRATEGY AND WAPDA’S VISION 2025 • The Pakistan Water Strategy and WAPDA’s Vision 2025 have reviewed likely future demands and the implied requirements for storage. • If no new storage is built, canal • diversions will remain stagnant at about 104 MAF and the shortfall will increase by about 12% over the next decade. • The Pakistan Water Strategy calculates that Pakistan needs to raise storage capacity by 18 MAF (6 MAF for replacement of storage lost to siltation and 12 MAF of new storage) by 2025 in order to meet the projected requirements of 134 MAF.