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8 th Grade Comprehensive Review

8 th Grade Comprehensive Review

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8 th Grade Comprehensive Review

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  1. 8th Grade Comprehensive Review SCIENCE SCIENCE 2013

  2. Vocabulary: Find useful vocabulary here! Overview • Purpose: 8th grade standardized testing review for Science • (Can be used as enrichment or remediation for middle school levels) • Contents: Concept vocabulary & practice exercises/ solutions. • Vocabulary Recognition, Multiple Choice, Short Response • Sources: Science Grade 8 Assessment Anchors & Eligible Content PDE Science Glossary PDE Overview of Science Assessment Anchors PDE SAS Assessment Creator • Reinforcement: www.tryscience.org www.chem4kids.com Created by: Jessie Minor

  3. Science: Search for understanding the natural world using inquiry and experimentation. INSTRUCTIONS • There are four categories tested; The Nature of Science, Biological Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. • Each category has subcategories that break down the concepts within the four tested categories. Most of the subcategories have vocabulary comparison sections, followed by multiple choice or short response exercises that are aligned with each of the Assessment Anchors for 8th grade Science. • Navigate through the review as you would a regular PowerPoint slide show. • Exercise answers will appear at the click of a mouse. • You will also notice the friendly skeleton to the right blurting out helpful vocabulary words that relate to that particular section of the review. Please Begin!!!  Tool: Any device used to extend human capability including computer-based tools.

  4. Technological design process: Recognizing the problem, proposing a solution, implementing the solution, evaluating the solution and communicating the problem, design and solution. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). Ask yourself… • Can you distinguish between a scientific theory and an opinion? • Did you know that even though a theory is supported by evidence, new experimentation and data can change an existing theory? • Do you know how to use observations and experimental results to support your ideas and conclusions? Theory: Organized knowledge applicable in a wide variety of circumstances; especially, assumptions, accepted principles and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict and explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of events.

  5. FACT vs. OPINION A truth known by actual experience or observation. • A belief or personal view which cannot give complete certainty.

  6. Law: Summarizing statement of observed experimental facts that has been tested many times and is generally accepted as true. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). A lab group measured how far two rubber bands stretched when attached to 100-gram masses. Five measurements were made for each rubber band. What is the range or the data collected for rubber band B? • 2.7cm • 2.8cm • 0.5cm • 0.3cm Regulation: A rule or order issued by an executive authority or regulatory agency of a government and having the force of law.

  7. Inquiry: A seeking or request for truth, information, knowledge. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). A student predicts that similar ice cubes will melt faster in a microwave than in a pot on the stove. How should this hypothesis be tested? • Measure & compare the volume of the pot & the microwave. • Identify and record the temperature of each ice cube before each trail. • Determine the volume of liquid water made by each ice cube. • Observe & record the time for each ice cube to completely change to a liquid. The best scientific reason for a scientist to accept a specific theory is? • because there can only be one correct theory • to obtain funding for the research • that research & observations support the theory • to gain recognition as a great scientist Hypothesis: An educated guess that is usually testing by experimentation.

  8. Evidence: That which tends to disprove something; ground for belief, proof S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). Students tested three different types of laundry detergent to determine how effective they were at removing stains. The washing was done with the same washing machine set at the same water temperature. Each type of stain was on the same fabric & was the same size and shape. The students recorded the number of times the fabric had to be washed to completely remove each stain. The students had a null hypothesis: Detergents X, Y, & Z are equally effective at removing stains. Which conclusion is best supported by the data? Observations: Acts or instances of watching, or noticing. • Detergent X is more effective than both Y & Z at removing stains. • Detergent Y is more effective than both X & Z at removing stains. • Detergent X is more effective than Y at removing stains, but equal in effectiveness to Z. • Detergent Z is more effective than X at removing stains, but equal in effectiveness to Y.

  9. Prediction: The act of predicting; what is going to happen. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.1 Explain, interpret, and apply scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge presented in a variety of formats (e.g., visuals, scenarios, graphs). In the design process, a trade-off occurs when a problem is solved but a feature is sacrificed. Which of the following is an example of a trade-off? • A car’s gas mileage is increased & the engine has less power. • An airplane uses a more efficient engine & has higher performance. • A sports drink’s taste is improved and has the same nutritional content. • A computer company upgrades the hardware and the price remains unchanged. Which question about the Allegheny river can best be answered through scientific inquiry? • Will this river be a fun place to visit? • How many species of fishes are present in this river? • Will fishing be a popular sport on this river in five years? • How much money should be spent to manage this river? Scenario: An imagined or projected sequence of events, especially plans or possibilities.

  10. Integrated Pest Management: A variety of pest control methods that include repairs, traps, bait, poison, etc. to eliminate pests. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. Ask yourself… • Did you know that environmental issues such as, pollution, vaccinations and pesticides have potential long-term health effects? • Ever heard of Sir Isaac Newton, one of the most influential scientists, who formulated laws of motion? • Are you aware of how many technological advancements the world of science has made within the last 100 years? Pest: A label applied to an organism when it is in competition with humans for some resource.

  11. POINT NONPOINTSOURCE vs. SOURCEPOLLUTION POLLUTION Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types). • Contamination that originates from many locations that all discharge into a location (e.g., a lake, stream, land area).

  12. Manufacturing Technology: The ways that humans produce goods and products. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. Some species of bacteria produce a substance that is toxic to insects but harmless to humans. Scientists have isolated the gene that controls production of this substance. Which of the following is the best reason for inserting this gene into corn plants? • The corn will grow faster. • Less fertilizer will be needed. • Fewer pesticides will be needed. • The corn will be more nutritious. Which of the following best describes a result of using interchangeable parts to manufacture automobiles? • The automobiles are identical. • The automobiles wear out quickly. • The automobiles are difficult to design. • The automobiles can be produced on an assembly line. Instructional Technology: Any mechanical aid (including computer technology) used to assist in or enhance the process of teaching and learning.

  13. Acid deposition: Precipitation with a pH less than 5.6 that forms in the atmosphere when certain pollutants mix with water vapor. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. The machine pictured to the right is used in a factory to make metal parts for toy cars. What is the most likely purpose of this machine in making the metal parts? • to sand the parts • to make holes in the parts • to fasten the parts together • to measure the size of the parts Geologic hazard: A naturally occurring or man-made condition that presents a potential danger to life and property (e.g., landslides, floods, earthquakes, coastal & beach erosion, faulting, dam leakage , mining disasters, pollution, waste & disposal, sinkholes).

  14. Technology Education: The application of tools, materials, processes and systems to solve problems and extend human capabilities. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.2 Identify and explain the impacts of applying scientific, environmental, or technological knowledge to address solutions to practical problems. Company X makes 100 custom buses each year. Company Y makes 10,000 of one type of bus each year. Which of the following is the most likely reason a customer would buy a bus from company X? • to keep the cost of the bus low • to ensure that the bus will be easy to replace • to provide ideas about how the bus will be built • to ensure that people know how to drive the bus A stone arch bridge relies primarily on which of the following for its load strength? • bending • compression • tension • torsion Construction Technology: The ways that humans build structures on sites.

  15. Succession: The series of changes that occur in an ecosystem with the passing of time. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.3 Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused in natural or human-made systems. Ask yourself… • Do you realize how much time it actually takes for a fossil to form? • Are you able to recognize the relative order of succession in an ecosystem? • Does the theory of evolution stump your brain? Or does it make you wonder about previous life form? Theory of Evolution: A theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to modification in successive generations.

  16. Sustainability: The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.3 Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused in natural or human-made systems. The diagrams to the left show the plant communities present in the same area at different times over a 200-year period following a forest fire. What is the correct sequence of these plant communities following the forest fire? • BADC • BCDA • BDCA • BACD Scale: Relates concepts and ideas to one another by some measurement; provides a measure of size and/or incremental change.

  17. Capacity: The maximum amount or number that can be received or contained. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.1 Reasoning and AnalysisS8.A.1.3 Identify and analyze evidence that certain variables may have caused in natural or human-made systems. The diagrams below show changes in a natural community over a period of 200 years. Which process is illustrated in the diagrams? • ozone depletion • global warming • recycling resources • ecological succession Variable: A quantity or function that may assume any given value or set of values; capable of being changed.

  18. Transportation systems: A group of related parts that function together to perform a major task in any form of transportation. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific InvestigationsS8.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to made inferences to solve problems . Ask yourself… • Can you identify the dependent and independent variables in a controlled experiment? • Are you able to determine an object’s mass, density, volume, or temperature? • Do you think about the operational process of a vehicle while you ride to school, or a plane while you fly to sunny Florida? Volume: the amount of space, measured by cubic units, that an object or substance can occupy

  19. PHYSICAL vs. TRANSPORTATIONTECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY The ways that humans construct, manufacture and transport products. • The physical ways humans move materials, goods and people.

  20. DEPENDENT vs. INDEPENDENTVARIABLE VARIABLE A variable (often shown by y) whose value depends on that of another. • A variable (often shown by x) whose variation does not depend on that of another.

  21. Controlled Experiment: A trial or experiment that uses control, usually separating the subjects into one or more control groups and experimental groups. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific InvestigationsS8.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to made inferences to solve problems . A student experimented with different factors that affect melting rates of snow. The student divided a pile of snow into two identical containers. He then mixed dirt into the snow in one of the containers. A lighted bulb, which modeled energy from the sun, was placed directly above the two containers. After ten minutes, the amount of snow remaining in each container was measured. Which variable changed in this experiment? • the size and shape of each container • the length of time the light shines on each container • the distance between the light bulb and each container • the amount of dirt that is mixed in each container Manipulate: To manage or influence skillfully, especially in an unfair manner.

  22. Conclusion: A result, issue or outcome; a reasoned inference. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific InvestigationsS8.A.2.1 Apply knowledge of scientific investigation or technological design in different contexts to made inferences to solve problems . Use the given table to answer this question. Which conclusion is supported by the data in the table? • By increasing the mass of a substance, its density will increase. • By increasing the mass of a substance, its volume will increase. • By increasing the volume of a substance, its mass will decrease. • By increasing the volume of a substance, its density will decrease. Flaw: A defect impairing validity; fault.

  23. Telescope: An instrument that allows the observation of remote objects by collecting visible light. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific InvestigationsS8.A.2.2 Apply appropriate instruments for a specific purpose and describe the information the instrument can provide. Ask yourself… • Did you know that our skin contains tiny bacteria that can only be seen by a microscope? • Have you ever had the opportunity to see the moon through the lens of a magnified telescope? • Would you use a scale or a stop watch to measure your body weight? Seismograph: Any of series of instruments used to measure vibrations of earthquakes.

  24. Microscope: An optical instrument having a magnifying lens or a combination of lenses for inspecting objects too small to be seen with the unaided eye. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific InvestigationsS8.A.2.2 Apply appropriate instruments for a specific purpose and describe the information the instrument can provide. Use the diagram and steps to answer this question. Using a Balance Which sequence shows the correct order to measure the mass of the box? • 2, 1, 4, 3 • 2, 3, 4, 1 • 4, 1, 2, 3 • 4, 2, 3, 1 Steps—Out of Order Read the measurement. Place the box on the pan. Slide the riders until the pointer line up with the zero (0) line. “Zero” the balance. Balance: An instrument for determining weight, typically by the equilibrium of a bar with a fulcrum in the center.

  25. Barometer: Any instrument that measures atmospheric pressure. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.2 Processes, Procedures, & Tools of Scientific Investigations This is a short open-ended (SOE) question. Answer parts A & B below about how a doctor uses microscopes. • Describe one way microscopes are used to help doctors determine whether people are healthy. • Describe one way a doctor’s job would be difficult if the doctor did not have a microscope as a tool for diagnosis. • Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: • The doctor can look for small things like bacteria. • Cells can be examined closely by a doctor. Hydraulics: The science that deals with the laws of governing water or other liquids in motion or other liquids in motion and their applications in engineering. • Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: • The doctor might need to conduct more tests to help a person get better. • A doctor’s ability to study diseases would be limited.

  26. Trophic Levels: The role of an organism in nutrient and energy flow within an ecosystem (e.g., herbivore, carnivore, decomposer). S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. Ask yourself… • Can you name the order of a living system from simplest to complex structures? • Do you know some ways that systems achieve homeostasis? • What are some ways to distinguish between a closed loop and an open loop system? Homeostasis: The tendency for a system to remain in a state of equilibrium by resisting change.

  27. CLOSED vs. OPENLOOP LOOP A group of related objects that have feedback and can modify themselves (e.g., materials in the nitrogen & carbon cycles, closed-switch systems. • A group of related objects that do not have feedback and cannot modify themselves (e.g., energy flow, food web).

  28. Habitat: The natural environment of an organism. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. Populations living in one place form a • community • system • habitat • species Robert Hooke looked at a piece of cork under a microscope. The little boxes he saw in the cork are called– • genes • nuclei • cells • chromosomes Mitigation: The policy of constructing or creating man-made habitats, such as wetlands, to replace those lost to development. Which substance provides humans with their main source of energy? • food • carbon dioxide • water • chlorophyll

  29. Closing the Loop: The link in the circular chain of recycling events that promotes the use of products made with recycled materials. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. • Base your answers to the following questions on the table below, which compares human populations and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere over time. How have the size of the human population and the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere changed from 1960 to 1990? • The human population has increased while the amount of CO2 has decreased. • The human population has decreased while the amount of CO2 has increased. • Both the human population and the amount of CO2 have increased. • Both the human population and the amount of CO2 have decreased. Population: the total numbers of persons or organisms inhabiting an area.

  30. Human-made System: Produced, formed, or made by humans. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.1 Explain the parts of a simple system, their roles, and their relationships to the system as a whole. • Base your answers to the following questions on the table below, which compares human populations and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere over time. Which human activity might explain the change in carbon dioxide levels shown in the graph? • storing nuclear waste • collecting solar energy • using wind energy • burning fossil fuels Feedback: Information derived by such a reaction or response.

  31. Model: A description, analogy or a representation of something that helps us understand it better (e.g., a physical model, a conceptual model, a mathematical model). S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions, draw inferences, or explain technological concepts. Ask yourself… • Have you ever used a model to predict outcomes or solve a task? • Did you know that engineering is one of the most intense and growing fields in the job market today? • How many times have you recognized the cause and accepted the effect, or consequence, of not doing your science homework? Engineering: The application of scientific, physical, mechanical and mathematical principles to design processes, products and structures that improve the quality of life.

  32. Diffusion: Dispersing, scattering, or spreading through a surface, such as dispersion of vapor in the air. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions, draw inferences, or explain technological concepts. What is the process that occurs in trees which helps reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? • diffusion • photosynthesis • infiltration • carbon gas conversion Which geometric shape is the most basic recurring element in the truss bridge? • cube • square • trapezoid • triangle Biomass Conversion: The changing of organic matter that has been produced by photosynthesis into useful liquid, gas, or fuel.

  33. Photosynthesis: A complex process by which water and carbon dioxide are converted to carbohydrates by green plants, algae, and some bacteria, using energy from the sun and chlorophyll. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.2 Apply knowledge of models to make predictions, draw inferences, or explain technological concepts. Where is water most likely to become contaminated? • Near a cattle farm • By a dam • At the ocean bottom • In a forest Incinerating: Burning to ashes; reducing to ashes. The equation for photosynthesis is shown. Which of these is required to complete the equation for photosynthesis? • Oxygen • Nitrogen • Hydrogen • Carbon What gas do animals need to carry out life processes? • Carbon monoxide • Carbon dioxide • Oxygen • Helium

  34. Patterns: Repeated processes that are exhibited in a wide variety of ways; identifiable recurrences of the element and/ or the form. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Electronic communication: System for the transmission of information using electronic technology (e.g., digital cameras, cellular telephones, Internet, television, fiber optics). Ask yourself… • Did you know that the rings of a tree trunk represent the number of living years? • Leaves have veins like humans, but if not blood, what runs through plant veins? • How does your cell phone allow you to call your friends if it does not plug into the wall???

  35. Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. A gardener performs an experiment growing three types of plants in equal amounts of soil. Three different types of plants are used. Each plant is 10 centimeters tall at the beginning of the experiment. The three plants are given 4 milliliters of water every day for 20 days. The results of the experiment are shown on the graph. Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

  36. Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Which plant was the tallest at the end of the 20-day period? Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 All plants were the same height Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

  37. Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Other than at the beginning of the experiment, on what day were plant 2 & plant 3 the same height? Day 5 Day 7 Day 15 Day 17 Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

  38. Patterns in Nature: Water waves, crystals, tree rings, veins in leaves. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Which plant grew at the slowest rate from Day 0 to Day 5? Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 All plants grew at the same rate Regulated System: To control or direct by a rule, principle, or method.

  39. Delineate: To trace the outline; to draw; to sketch; to depict or picture. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. Base your answers to the following questions on the information & graph below. Which sample contains particles in a rigid, fixed, geometric pattern? NH3 B. H2O C. KCl D. CO2 Dichotomous: Divided or dividing into parts or classifications.

  40. Camouflage: The act of deceiving an enemy. S8.A The Nature of ScienceS8.A.3 Systems, Models, and PatternsS8.A.3.3 Describe repeated processes or recurring elements in natural, scientific, and technological patterns. The diagram below shows two different-colored moths resting on a tree trunk. How is this difference in pattern and color affect the moths’ ability to survive in the environment? Biological Diversity: The variety and complexity of species present and interacting in an ecosystem and the relative abundance of each. • Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to: • The dark moth’s pattern will help it hide from predators. • The light moth’s color will allow its predators to see it better. • The dark moth blends in with the tree and helps it hide. • The dark moth’s color/ pattern provides camouflage.

  41. Embryology: The branch of biology dealing with the development of living things from fertilized egg to its developed state. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of OrganismsS8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Mitosis: The usual method of cell division, characterized by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a threadlike form, which condenses into two separate chromosomes that go into each of the new cells resulting from the original cell. Ask yourself… • Have you noticed that the prefix of a scientific term can tell a lot about the meaning of that term (e.g., uni-, poly-, multi-, non-,in-)? • Can you name the various categories of organisms? • Could you imagine not having a backbone?

  42. UNICELLULAR vs. MULTICELLULAR Consisting of a single cell. • Composed of several or many cells.

  43. VASCULAR vs. NONVASCULAR Pertaining to, composed of, or provided with tissues or vessels that carry fluids. • Containing no tissues or vessels to carry water, minerals, etc. (e.g., mosses, lichens, fungi).

  44. VERTIBRATE vs. INVERTIBRATE An animal possessing a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds and reptiles. • An animal lacking a backbone, such as an arthropod or mollusk.

  45. Shredder: Through chewing and/or grinding, microorganisms feed on non-woody coarse particulate matter, primarily leaves. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of OrganismsS8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Which characteristic is used to classify frogs into a different phylum from squid, snails, and jellyfish? Frogs are predators. Frogs breathe oxygen. Frogs have backbones. Frogs live on land. The diagram below show a major system of the human body. Which of the following best describes the function of this system? absorbing nutrients from food protecting the body from infection exchanging gases with the environment responding to stimuli in the environment Meiosis: Part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjunction and two cell divisions. Chloroplasts are found only in organisms that are able to– grow to a larger size generate their own energy hunt for prey migrate to other ecosystems

  46. Phylum: The primary subdivision of a taxonomic kingdom, grouping together all classes of organisms that have the same body plan. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of OrganismsS8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Substances enter any plant or animal cell by passing through which of the following structures? nucleus cell membrane vacuole chloroplast Vacuole: A membrane bound cavity with the cytoplasm of a cell, often containing a watery liquid. How is this fish adapted for weedy areas in freshwater lakes? The upper fin of the fish looks like waves of water. The lower fins of the fish look like the legs of a turtle. The stripes of the fish look like plants in the water The front of the fish looks like the surface of a rock. Which factor has the least effect on a person’s metabolism? exercise intelligence hormones diet

  47. Amniotic Eggs: The sac in which the embryo is suspended; laid by reptiles, birds, and mammals. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of OrganismsS8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Which statement most accurately describes a relationship between two animals in this relationship diagram? The turtle and opossum have amniotic eggs. The turtle and salamander have amniotic eggs. The turtle and opossum are warm-blooded. The turtle and salamander are warm-blooded. Protista: A kingdom comprised of various one-celled organisms.

  48. Fungi: Comprising all the fungus groups and sometimes also the slime molds. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.1Structure and Function of OrganismsS8.B.1.1 Describe and compare structural and functional similarities and differences that characterize diverse living things. Omnivorous: Eating both animal and plant foods. Which two organisms above belong to the same kingdom? • Acceptable response: • bird and shark All plants and animals have mechanisms that transport nutrients perform photosynthesis regulate nerves produce flowers

  49. Biotechnology: The ways that humans apply biological concepts to produce products and provide services. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of LifeS8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. Endangered species: A species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Ask yourself… • Have you heard of a genetically engineered fish with cattle growth genes?! • Did you know that currently there are over 2,000 plant and animal endangered species in the world? • Have you ever have to adapt to a new environment such as, a new school, town, or home? What kind of changes did you have to make?

  50. Extinction: The complete elimination of a species from the earth. S8.ABiological Sciences S8.B.2 Continuity of LifeS8.B.2.1 Explain the basic concept of natural selection. The fur of a snow rabbit changes to white during the winter. This change is an example of adaptation competition metamorphosis metabolism The vast variety of different traits found in humans results from intensive training and education sexual reproduction and mutations exercise and conditioning birth defects and recessive genes Selective Breeding: The intentional mating of two animals in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or for the elimination of a trait. If a species is no longer able to reproduce, it will adapt to its environment become immune to disease become extinct increase its population The effects of natural selection are generally seen most quickly in which organisms? bacteria corn plants humans cats