Minerals Rocks are made up of minerals but minerals are not made up of rocks!!
Minerals • There are different kinds of minerals in rocks because rocks are made up of minerals. • Minerals are not made up of rocks. • The definition of a mineral includes very specific parts • It is multipart definition that helps us distinguish rocks from minerals
Definition Part #1: Solid • Matter, things, can be in three different forms in nature • Gas (Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen) • Liquid (Water) • Solid (Minerals, Wood, Rock, Metal) • Minerals must be solids
Definition Part #2: Inorganic • Things in nature are either Organic or Inorganic • Organicmeans:Comes from living things • Inorganicmeans:Not coming from living things • So minerals cannot come from living things
Definition Part #3: Naturally Formed • Minerals are naturally formed • They are found in nature • Natural things include rocks, minerals, wood • They are not man-made • People cannot make a mineral • Man-made things include plastic, glass, concrete, Styrofoam
Definition Part #4: Structure • Minerals have a definite structure • Structure means:The individual pieces of the mineral are arranged in a way that is specific to that mineral • You would have to study this aspect of minerals with a microscope
Definition Part #5: Same throughout • Minerals are made up of the same things • There is not a mixture of parts like in rocks.
The whole definition of minerals…. • A solid(not a liquid or a gas) • Inorganic (not living) • Naturally formed(not man made) • Has definite structure • Is the same throughout (is not made up of different things) http://www.minerals.net/gemstone/index.htm
Interesting Facts about Minerals • Approximately 4,000 different minerals have been identified by scientists so far! • 50-100 new minerals are discovered every year!
Properties / Characteristics of Minerals • Properties help us identify minerals • We can use these properties to help us classify minerals just like the scientists who first found and identified them!
Property #1: Color • Minerals can be many different colors • Color can change due to IMPURITIES (other things in the mineral that are not pure) • Example: Pyrite (fool’s gold) will turn brown or black when exposed to air http://www.minerals.net/mineral/carbonat/calcite/images/4assortd.htm
Property #2: Luster • Luster means: “the way a surface reflects light” (www.dictionary.com) • Whether or not it is shiny!! • Minerals that are shiny have a METALLIC luster. • Minerals that are dull have a NONMETALLIC luster. http://www.minerals.net/mineral/sulfides/pyrite/pyrite2.htm
Property #3: Streak • If you were to rub a mineral on a special piece of porcelain (pottery-like) called a “streak plate”, streak is the color of the powder left behind • In simple terms, the color of its powder when rubbed!! http://www.minerals.net/mineral/oxides/hematite/hematit6.htm
Property #4: Cleavage • If you were to break a mineral, “cleavage” is when it breaks and creates smooth, flat surfaces or pieces • Examples include • Mica – breaks into sheets • Halite – breaks at 90 degree angles in three directions http://www.flickr.com/photos/orbitaljoe/108073872/
Property #5: Fracture • If you were to break a mineral, “fracture” is when it breaks and creates a rough surface • An Example includes • Quartz – creates a curved fracture
Property #6: Hardness • A mineral’s resistance to being scratched. • The ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material • Measured on the MOHS hardness scale. • It was created in 1812 by the German mineralogist, Friedrich Mohs • A Mohs Value of 1 is the softest and 10 is the hardest. http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/elements/diamond/diamond.htm
Mohs Hardness Scale • Talc Softest • Gypsum • Calcite • Fluorite • Apatite • Orthoclase • Quartz • Topaz • Corundum • Diamond Hardest
Property #7: Density • Measure of how much matter (stuff) is in the mineral. • Golf ball feels heavier than ping-pong ball because it is more dense (made of more stuff). http://www.minerals.net/mineral/elements/gold/gold1.htm
Special Property #1: Fluorescence • Does it glowunder ultraviolet light? • Yes: Then is has the property of Fluorescence • No: Then is does not have the property Fluorescence http://www.sterlinghill.org/Tour%20information.htm
Does it bubble in acid?? Special Property #2: Chemical Reactions
Special Property #3: Optical • Optical means: • pertaining to sight or vision; visual(www.dictionary.com) • Example: A thin piece of calcite placed over something will cause a double image
Special Property #4: Magnetism • Magnetism means: “the properties of attraction possessed by magnets” (www.dictionary.com) • Natural magnets that attract iron • Do other metals or minerals stick to it like magnets? http://www.minerals.net/mineral/oxides/magnetit/magneti4.htm
Special Property #5: Taste • Example: Halite has a salty taste. • DO NOT TASTE MINERALS! http://mineral.galleries.com/scripts/item.exe?LIST+Minerals+Halides+Halite
Special Property #6: Radioactivity • Minerals that contain radium or uranium are radioactive
Aluminum: packaging, transport, building (Yes, like aluminum cans) Beryllium: fluorescent lights (Like the ones in school!) Copper: electric cables, wires, switches Feldspar: glass and ceramics Iron: buildings, automobiles, magnets Calcite: toothpaste, construction http://www.mii.org/commonminerals.php Common Uses of Minerals
Even we need minerals!!! http://www.mii.org/www.mii.org