Fall of Rome = Rise of Byzantine • Diocletian’s divided empire into East and West to better fight off invaders • West (Rome) fell - constant attacks from Germanic tribes. • East (Byzantine) grew and gained power.
Creation of Byzantine Empire • 476 marks fall of Roman Empire as Germanic tribes take over. (West) • Byzantine Empire thriving. • Emperor Constantine relocates the capitol to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople. • protected geographically from invasions. • Good port access for trading.
Justinian • Emperor from 527-565. • Focused on keeping empire united. • Spent lots of money • Raised taxes and left empire bankrupt • Wife Theodora served as his counselor. • She kept peace between the Orthodox Church and it’s opposition. • Her death led to invasions because opposition gave in.
Byzantine Society • Emperor served as a priest-king…Power! • Emperors were above law they made the laws. • Hierarchical - dominated by the aristocracy. • Laws applied to everyone but punishments depended on your status in society. • Born into family on nobility often guaranteed a good position in society. • Women viewed as a temptation and subject to men’s control. • Few educated, not allowed to leave home without servants to accompany them, raised children.
Role of the Church in Byzantine Empire • Church was used to centralize the Empire. • “One God, One Empire, One Religion”. Uniformity. • Emperor was very tied to religion and church and government ruled as one. • Iconoclast Movement was to end the worship of icons (pictures, statues, etc.) • Great Schism : Divisions between Orthodox Church(East) and Catholic Church (West) lead to the creation of 2 separate groups.
Byzantine Empire • Allows the Church to gain a lot of power in society and gives them control over citizens lives. • Survive until conquered by Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Fall of the West and Rise of Germanic Tribes • Germanic tribes had lived with Romans in peace. • Visigoths arrive and increases migration of tribe. • Visigoths are pushed west by the Huns who come in from Mongolia. • Rome begins to mistreat and take advantage of tribes.
Rome in Trouble • Tribes fight back against Rome with little resistance. • Visigoths (Alaric) in 410 • Huns (Attila) • Vandals (Odovacer) • Tribes settle Europe Ostrogoths - Italy Visigoths - S.Gaul (Spain) • Franks - Gaul (France) Angles & Saxons - (England) • Germanic tribes accept Christianity and Roman law, government, and culture.
Rise of the Turks • Society based on Arab and Islamic values. • Ghazis - warriors for the faith • Sultan - Deputy or right arm of the state • Caliph was spiritual head Sultan controlled military and secular (non-religious) affairs.
Turkish Society • Lived on horseback in harsh environment. Nomadic tribal people. Lived by herding, fighting and raiding. • Muslim Arabs first captured them and turned them into military slaves. • Absorbed this Muslim culture.
The Rise of Russia • Began as a group of people called Rus. • Tried to invade Byzantine Empire but failed.