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Article #3 New York Windmills. Setbacks: Minimum distance from residence for construction of turbines. Determined locally – community, county, state. Typical Setback = hub height + tip height x 1.5 So….. 280 ft +100 ft x 1.5 = 570 ft. Why Setbacks?. Aesthetics Noise Flicker Shadow

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## Article #3 New York Windmills

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**Article #3 New York Windmills**Setbacks: Minimum distance from residence for construction of turbines. Determined locally – community, county, state. Typical Setback = hub height + tip height x 1.5 So….. 280 ft +100 ft x 1.5 = 570 ft**Why Setbacks?**• Aesthetics • Noise • Flicker Shadow • Blade Ice • Tip speed = 100 mph • Fly Way • Migratory Birds/Bats**Article #4 Intro to Wind Development**• Project Planning/Goals page 1 • South Dakota #4 in Potential….why? • Low Population and high wind quality • Process is the same for all scales of operation • Size just changes length (time) of development • US Department of Energy Website • Maps – show wind class ( 3 or higher and clear of trees) • Assessment of “possible” project • MET Towers – study quality of wind on site. $80,000 • Anemometer – gives wind quality data • Radar Globe- study quality from ground. No tower needed • Customer Base- does your peak production times meet the demands of potential customers? 5pm – 10 pm**Article #4 Intro to Wind Development**• Site Assessment • Physical aspects of the property • Access? Can you get heavy equipment on-site? • Is road construction required? • Do current roads have to be improved? • Topography – surrounding terrain • Can enhance wind flow/can also detract from wind flow • Access to transmission lines • Current costs = $1.0 - $1.5 million/mile**Article #4 Intro to Wind Development**• Business Structure • Possibilities: • Lease $6000.00 per/tower over 20 – 25 years. • Not much risk…..lowest payback • Join Coop • More risk – requires your money for development • More potential payback • Own it Yourself • High risk……more potential financial return • Why? Turbine cost, construction, connection, metering, maintenance, consultation • Finance Options- dependant on what your structure is • Assignment- Read pages 4-6. Find current event article on wind energy.**Article #5 “Know Your Wind”**• Wind Speed – MOST important variable • Varies = Seasonal, Height, Time of Day • Average annual wind speed “Cubic Relationship” • 15mph = 3375 13mph = 2197 60% • Wind Speed Distribution • Flagging – Vegetation deformation due to wind • Griggs-Putnam Index of Deformity p.3 • Anemometer/Radar • State Wind Resource maps • Daily/Seasonal Wind • Need a “Client” You, coop, power company? • Wind Direction • Wind Rose Chart**Know Your Wind Con’t**• Wind Shear • Typically increases with height • Air pressure and Temperature • Minimal effect….air density • Regional data • Obstacles • Trees, buildings, other turbines • Roughness • Vegetation, terrain….SMOOOOTH=GOOOD • 19 mile radius • Contours**Solar Energy = Wind Energy?**• Sun = radiant energy • Earth’s Surfaces heat unevenly…water/land • Differing times of the day • Warm air Rises= lowers Atmospheric pressure • Cooler air (more dense) is drawn in to replace it • End Result ……WIND!Isobar Map Explanation • Air has mass, when in motion = Kinetic Energy • Kinetic energy = mechanical energy = work • Graphic 10.1 p. 242**Energy Production Units**• Watt W Watt = volts x amps • Kilowatt kW = 1000 watts • Megawatt MW = 1,000,000 watts • Gigawatt GW = 1,000,000,000 watts • Production and Consumption are usually measured in kWh (kilowatt hours) • kWh = 1 kW produced/consumed per hour • 50 watt bulb on for 20 hours = 1 kWh = $.07 • 50 W x 20 h = 1000wh = 1kWh**USA household Energy Usage**• Average electrical use = 10,000 kWh • Spirit Lake Elementary ... 250 kW Turbine • 350,000 kWh/year • 53,000 sq. ft • Bonus $25,000/year • Utility Scale Requirements – Turbine Tour • Minimum average of 13 mph (6 m/s) • 1 MW can produce 2.4 – 3 million kWh/year • Pay back in SD? 7 – 7.5 years**Procedure # 2 Math**• The Power contained in a square meter of air, at a given density is represented by: • P = ½ x p x (v)3 answer will be in watts/m2 • P = Power (watts/m2) • P = Standard atmosphere = 1.225kg/m3 • V = wind speed in m/s (1m/s = 2.23 mph) So….how much power in a wind 3 m/s? P = ½ x 1.225 kg/m3 x (3 m/s)3 = 16.5 watts/m2

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