The Vietnam War By: Jonathan Korolyk
About the Vietnam War It was as the Second Indochia War. Followed the First Indochia War. It was fought between Communist North Vietnam Government South Vietnam It lasted November 1, 1955 – April 30, 1975, when Saigon fell.
U.S. enters the War Military advisors arrived in 1950 Involvement rose in 1960 Army tripled in 1961 and again in 1962
Background of the Vietnam War until 1949 Treaty of Huế concluded in 1884, formed the basis for French colonial rule in Vietnam for the next seven decades (70 years) After the invasion of French Indochina the French took control of the Indochina colony. This situation continued until the German forces were expelled. The Japanese feared that they can no longer trust the French authorities. The Japanese army interned them on March 9, 1945 and assumed direct control of themselves through their puppet state of the Empire of Vietnam under Bảo Đại
Background to 1949 continued… In 1944-1945 a deep famine struck northern Vietnam with a combination of poor weather and Japanese exploitations. One million people died from starvation
Background to 1949 continued… In August 1945 the Japanese were defeated by the French. In French Indochina this created a power vacuum. In this vacuum was the August Revolution It was when the Viet Minh entered and grasped power across Vietnam On September 2, 1945 Hồ Chí Minh the leader of Viet Minh declared the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi But United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union agreed that the area belonged to the French.
French’s Power Vacuum continued… The allied victors tried to get the land back, but Hồ Chí Minh wanted to negotiate with the French. The French landed in Hanoi, and ousted the Viet Minh They started a Guerrilla war with the French
Exit of the French In the beginning of 1950, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) led the communist nations. PRC helped Viet Minh formed from guerrilla force to a regular army. U.S. created Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) It helped screen French request for aid. Advise on strategy Train Vietnamese soldiers
The Battle of Dien Phu marked the end on the French involvement in Indochina. France surrendered Independence was granted to: - Cambodia - Laos - Vietnam
Insurgency in the South Hanoi lead communist in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency 20% of Vietnam’s village chiefs had been assassinated by insurgents in 1958
During JFK in office 1961-1963 • JFK had some crisis - failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion - construction of the Berlin Wall - settlement of the government of Laos • July 23, 1962 was the Signing the Agreement promising neutrality of Laos • These groups/ countries were: • People’s Republic of China • North Vietnam • South Vietnam • Soviet Union • United States
Coup and Assassination January 2, 1963, the Battle of Ap Bac. ARVN were led in that battle by Huynh Van Cao Washington policymakers are saying that Huynh Van Cao had a deal with Ho Chi Mini, because he is incapable of defeating communist.
U.S. officials began discussing the possibility of a regime change. The U.S. Department of state is in favor of encouraging a coup The Defense Department favored Diem.
The CIA was in contact with generals wanting to remove Diem Diem later was overthrown and executed.
Lyndon B. Johnson expands war Lyndon B. Johnson become president after JFK’s assassination. Johnson created the NSAM 273 and expanded the war Instead of using NSAM 263, which withdrew 1000 soldiers.
Army About 5000 1959- 100,000 1961- 850,000 – one million soldiers US troops deployed in Vietnam grew from 2,000 soldiers in 1961 to 16,500 soldiers in 1964
operationsMarch 2nd 1965 - Flaming Dart - Rolling Thunder - Arc Light
Operation Rolling Thunder - Covered the North with millions of missiles rockets and bombs Operation Commando Hunt - targeted the NLF and the Vietnam People’s Army (VPA) - objective: forcing North Vietnam’s support with the NLF - operation failed
Escalation and ground war March 8th, 1965 3,500 US marines were sent to Vietnam This is the beginning of the American ground war Increased to 200,000 in December Communist made a hit-and-run guerrilla tactics Communist won another Battle of the Battle of Dong Xoai
United State’s Plan • three point plan: - Commitment of US to halt the losing trend by the end of 1965 - the forces seize the guerilla forces this will end when the enemy was warn down and driven back. - if phase two is not complete in 12 to 18 months they will need the final destruction of enemy forces
Tet Offensive This is when over 100 cities were attacked with assaults on General Westmoreland’s headquarters and the US Embassy, Saigon It was the American turning point in Vietnam
May 10th, 1968 America and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam began peace talks Johnson stopped bombing Vietnam
VS Hubert Humphrey (Dem.) Richard Nixon (Rep.)
Vietnamization Richard Nixon becomes President. Nixon Doctrine- build up the ARVN so they could protect South Vietnam Oct. 10th, 1969 Nixon ordered a squadron of 18 B-52s loaded with nuclear weapons and attach the boarder to show the Soviet Union that he will do anything to end the war
Operation Menu: the secret bombing of Cambo dia and Laos • Prince Norodom Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia neutral since 1955 • His policy changed in 1969 when Vietnamese communists were no longer welcome • 1971, Pentagon papers were leaked into the New York Times • Supreme court said it was legal
1972 election Nixon McGovern vs.
Opposing to the Vietnam War:1962-1975 It united groups: - U.S - anti-communism - imperialism - colonialism Opposition turned into street riots in effort to turn U.S political opinion
Paris Peace Accords They were signed on January 27, 1973 Ended all U.S involvement in the Vietnam War
Exit of the Americans U.S dramatically retreated their support for South Vietnam during the final years of Vietnamization The North was planning to attack the south during the 1975- 1976 dry season
The north started to retake land from the south President Theiew announced that the Paris Peace treaty was no longer in effect Gerald Ford took over as U.S president on August 9th 1974 after Nixon’s Watergate scandal
Campaign 275 On March 10th 1975, General Dung launched Campaign 275 this limited offensive into Central Highlands Their target was Ban Me Thuot in Daklak Provinence
March 22nd VPA opened the siege of Hue March 31st Hue fell
Final North Vietnamese offensive North with half of Vietnam, decided to head for Saigon Ho Chi Minh campaigned for the fall of Saigon by May 1st
The ARVN tried to make a last stand before they reached Saigon They defended for two weeks On April 21st they surrendered President Thieu resigned the same day declaring that the U.S betrayed South Vietnam April 27th 100,000 North Vietnamese soldiers encircled Saigon
Fall of Saigon • Martial Law: American helicopters began evacuating people in Saigon • Operation Frequent Wind: evacuation of Saigon -largest helicopter evacuation in history • President Gerald Ford gave a televised speech declaring the end of the Vietnam War
Countries involved in the war: - People’s Republic of China - South Korea - Australia - New Zealand - Philippines - Thailand - Soviet Union - North Korea - Canada and the ICC -Republic of China (Taiwan) - United States - North and South Vietnam
Aftermath Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia, fell to the Communist party of Kampuchea on Apria 17th 1975 Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and became the Cambodian-Vietnam War
China invaded Vietnam in 1979 in a boarder war • Known as the Third Indochina War 1978-1979 • Path Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975
Effect on the United States Between 1965 and 1975 the United States spent $111 billion on the war 3 million soldiers entered the war: - 58,193 soldiers were killed - 150,000 were wounded - 21,000 were permanently wounded Many fled to Canada to avoid Vietnam draft
Chemical defoliation Rainbow Herbicides: - Agent Pink - Agent Green - Agent Purple - Agent Blue - Agent White Most important Agent Orange
Agent Orange Made of Dixon Over 20 million US gallons were sprayed over Southeast Asia Caused birth defects
Casualties Vietnamese government in its military forces suffered 1.1 million and 600,000 wounded Civilian deaths from Operation Rolling Thunder ranged from 52,000 to 182,000 U.S military has estimated between 200,000 and 250,000 South Vietnamese soldiers died in the war