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# Estimation of the Primal Production Function

Estimation of the Primal Production Function. Lecture V. Ordinary Least Squares. The most straightforward concept in the estimation of production function is the application of ordinary least squares.

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## Estimation of the Primal Production Function

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1. Ordinary Least Squares • The most straightforward concept in the estimation of production function is the application of ordinary least squares.

2. Note that we have already applied symmetry on the quadratic. From an estimation perspective, since x1x2=x2x1 any other approach would not work. • Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we apply ordinary least squares to this specification to estimate

3. Do these estimates make any sense? What is wrong? • Turning to the Cobb-Douglas form

4. What are some of the problems with this specification? • First, the one problem is that there may be zero input levels. What is the production theoretic problem with zero input levels? What is the econometric problem with zero input levels? • Second, what is the assumption of the error term?

5. Estimating the Transcendental Production Function: • The transcendental production function has many of the same problems as the Cobb-Douglas. Specifically, the production function can be written as:

6. Again, what are the assumptions about zeros or the distribution of error terms.

7. Transcendental MPP-Nitrogen

8. Transcendental MPP Phosphorous

9. Transcendental MPP of Potash

10. Nonparametric Production Functions • It is clear from our discussions on production functions that the choice of production function may have significant implications for the economic results from the model. • The Cobb-Douglas function has linear isoquants that has implications for the input demand functions. • While the Cobb-Douglas function has no stage III, the quadratic production function is practically guaranteed a stage III.

11. Thus, one approach is to generate nonparametric functional forms. • These nonparametric functional forms are intended to impose allow for the maximum flexibility in the input-output map. • The approach is different that the nonparametric production function suggested by Varian.

12. Two approaches: • Fourier Expansions • Nonparametric regressions

13. A nonparametric regression is basically a moving weighted average where the weights of the moving average change for various input levels. • In this case y(x) is the estimated function value conditioned on the level of inputs x .

14. The value y(z) is the observed output level at observed input level z. • f(y,z,x,) is a kernel function which weights the observations based on a distance from the point of approximation. • In this application, I use a Gaussian kernel.

15. The multivariate form of the Gaussian kernel function is expressed as • Because of the discrete nature of the expansion, I transform the continuous distribution into a discrete Gaussian distribution

16. The estimated value of the production function at point can then be computed as

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