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  1. Welcome Bill Kinross, Publisher Rita Jane Gabbett, Executive Editor

  2. An Integrated Approach To Ground Beef Safety James L. Marsden, Ph.D. Regent’s Distinguished Professor Kansas State University December 9, 2009

  3. E. coli O157:H7 and Ground Beef For several years, it appeared that the beef industry was winning the war against E. coli O157:H7. Over the past 2-3 years, we have experienced a reversal in the positive trends observed between 2003 and 2006 Why has there been an increase in the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in Beef?

  4. E. coli O157:H7 and Ground Beef Theories: • Meat industry complacency • Improvements in testing procedures and reporting • Climate change – more dust in some areas – more rain and mud in others

  5. E. coli O157:H7 and Ground Beef Theories: • Changes in feeding practices – distillers grain as an alternative to corn – conflicting studies about effect on E. coli O157:H7 in cattle • Crackdown on illegal workers by the INS may have led to unskilled, inexperienced workers • Wide use of interventions may have resulted in mutations, making the organism more resistant to anti-microbial treatments

  6. E. coli O157:H7 and Ground Beef Whatever the reason (s), after several years of steady decline, there has been an upward trend in the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in beef over the past 2 years There is a need for the beef industry to refocus its efforts on control of E. coli O157:H7 Technologies have emerged that should allow for improved control

  7. USDA Approval of Vaccine for Cattle - Epitopix LLC Research on Post-chill Carcass Decontamination Research on Systems for Control of Contamination during the Slaughter Process UV/Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Chilled Carcasses Development of Chemical Anti-microbial Treatments for Slaughter Applications Recent Developments – Control of E. coli O157:H7 in Cattle and on Beef Carcasses

  8. Technologies To Reduce Contamination Prior To, During And After The Slaughter Process Washing Live Cattle prior to Slaughter Carcass Pasteurization Technologies applied during the slaughter process – Chemical and Thermal. Improved Environmental Control during the Slaughter Process – EMS research – Ozone based technology Carcass Spacing Technologies to facilitate proper cooling and reduce opportunity for outgrowth. Post-Chill Pasteurization Technologies – UV Treatment of chilled carcasses/Irradiation /Ammonia

  9. Carcass Pasteurization Treatment of Chilled Carcasses UV or Ozone/Peroxide based Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Ammonia Electron Beam Irradiation (Limited to Surface)

  10. Carcass Pasteurization An integral part of the solution to the problem of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef is to produce pasteurized beef carcasses that are virtually free of enteric contamination – This includes E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Dairy Analogy – the raw material for cheese manufacturing is pasteurized milk The raw material for grinders, processors and purveyors should be pasteurized beef carcasses

  11. Ground Beef Safety Technologies for decontamination of beef trimmings prior to grinding and verifying their effectiveness: • Treatment using Chemical Antimicrobials - Acidified Sodium Chlorite and Lactic Acid • Treatment using UV/PHI Technology • Combination of UV and Chemical Antimicrobials – i.e. UV + Sanova • Ammonia • High Hydrostatic Pressure • N-60 Testing of Beef Trimmings

  12. Jensen Meat Co. Implementing Intervention Procedures Bob Jensen, President Debbie Dardon Anselm, Quality Assurance Manager

  13. Intervention Points of Discussion • 21 CFR 173.325 • ASC is GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) • Sanova Application • Sanova titration • Moisture Control • Discoloration Control • Oxidation Control

  14. 21 CFR 173.325 • ASC (Acidified Sodium Chlorite) may be safely used in accordance with prescribed conditions. • ASC is used as an Antimicrobial agent in accordance with current industry practice in processing of red meat, red meat parts and organs as a component of a spray or dip. • As a dip or spray, Sodium Chlorite concentrations must be between 500 to 1,200 ppm and a pH of 2.3 to 2.9.

  15. Sanova System

  16. Sanova Application Spray Bars 2.5 Gallons Per Minute

  17. Sanova Titration500 to 1200 ppmpH 2.3 to 2.9

  18. Test Monitoring Log

  19. Moisture ControlTest Method For Untreated Product • Core sample each untreated combo and lean beef blend and test for percent fat and percent moisture using AOAC method • Process into frozen ground beef patties • Resample each lot in duplicate and test for percent fat and percent moisture

  20. Moisture ControlTest Method For Treated Product • Core sample each combo and lean beef blend and test for percent fat and percent moisture using AOAC method • Apply Sanova treatment to trimmings and dried through conveyance process and with application of CO2. • Process into frozen ground beef patties • Finished ground beef is sampled and tested for percent fat and percent moisture using Foodscan Analyzer

  21. Moisture Control • We have not shown a gain of water here at Jensen Meat Co. • In the event that it is determined that the finished ground beef product contains excess water due to the intervention treatment, it will be labeled accordingly (i.e. beef patties containing added water). • USDA has been shown this process and have been satisfied with its results.

  22. Sanova Log Reduction Of APC • Preliminary verification tests in 2004 showed a 1.12 log reduction in APC with the use of Sanova

  23. Sanova APC Reduction 1.12 Log

  24. Sanova % Reduction of E. coli • Preliminary verification tests in 2004 showed an 84.3% reduction in E. coli with the use of Sanova

  25. Sanova E. coli Reduction84.30%

  26. Discoloration Control • ASC may cause some color bleaching of product. However, if used correctly, discoloration is minimized. • ASC may interact with other interventions such as SyntrX, causing possible discoloration of finished product. • Added seasonings, such as salt, may also interact and cause discoloration

  27. Oxidation Control • Micro testing performed did not show anything out of the ordinary such as APC, E. coli generic, coli forms, etc. except for TBA. • TBA (Thio Barbituric Acid) showed levels > 1. This value should be < 1. • These readings correlated with off-color finished product. • Smeared fat in finished product will show higher TBA values.

  28. Oxidation Control • We found that by sharpening the Grinder plate daily and changing the bushings quarterly, there was no smearing of product. • The smearing of product (fat) caused more surface area for oxidation causing discoloration and possibly affecting the taste. • We also found that the use of ammoniated treated product inhibited or prevented premature oxidation. • All these in combination eliminated any discoloration and oxidation problems.

  29. Conquering Our Challenges • The challenges we have incurred over the past few years have helped us understand and conquer off-color and oxidation problems which have made us a better and pro-active establishment. • We hope that these hints may help you understand your process better and eliminate any guesswork.

  30. Additional Approaches To Ground Beef Safety James L. Marsden, Ph.D. Regent’s Distinguished Professor Kansas State University December 9, 2009

  31. Pasteurization Technologies for Raw Ground Beef • Irradiation – Electronic Pasteurization • High Hydrostatic Pressure – Provides a 5 log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella

  32. Integrated Process for Safe Ground Beef Vaccine – Reduces incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle Washing Live Cattle prior to Slaughter Enhanced Slaughter Interventions Proper Chilling and Carcass Spacing Post-Slaughter Pasteurization Interventions to Reduce Contamination on Beef Trimmings prior to Grinding

  33. Integrated Process N-60 Testing of Trimmings Possible Pasteurization of Ground Beef Verify using Microbiological Testing Validated Cooking Procedures in Restaurants Consumer Education on Safe Food Handling and Cooking

  34. Integrated Process The net effect of this integrated process is a major reduction or possible elimination in the risk associated with E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef products

  35. Questions & Answers

  36. For More Information: Dr. James Marsden: Bob Jensen: Debbie Anselem: Bill Kinross: Rita Jane Gabbett: Webinar recording and PowerPoint presentation available at: