Cell Specialization 2 Video
Learning Goals Define the term “stem cell.” Explain how stem cells can become specialized. Compare and contrast embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. State one practical use of stem cell research.
Regeneration The process of replacing or regrowing a lost body part The salamander is able to regenerate limbs, tails, lenses of the eye and parts of the heart.
Regeneration • The human liver is the only organ we have capable of regenerating. • In 2008, scientists were able to regenerate a human fingertip. • Scientists are able to create body parts in the lab. They have successfully made functioning: • Bladders • Blood vessels • Heart valves
Cell Specialization • A multicellular organism is a collection of different types of cells doing specialized jobs. • Although all cells have the same DNA information, they are not all alike. • Cells develop in different ways to perform particular functions • animal cells may become specialized to form lung cells, skin cells, or brain cells.
Stem Cell • An unspecialized cell • Every cell in your body came from small group of stem cells. • Form specialized cells when exposed to the proper environmental conditions • Can remain unspecialized and actively dividing for long periods.
Scientists are studying stem cells in animals and plants so that they can understand the process of cell specialization. They believe that stem cells may be used to treat injuries and diseases by regenerating organs. Stem Cell Video
Embryonic Stem Cells • found in embryos • can become any cell type of the body and perform any function (differentiation)
Adult Stem Cells • able to differentiate but are limited to cell types of their tissue of origin • involved in replacement of adult tissue
Embryo Video Stem cells used in the treatment of such diseases as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. There is much public debate about the use of embryonic stem cells. It is possible to harvest a few embryonic stem cells from the umbilical cord or placenta, but to collect larger amounts of embryonic stem cells; it is necessary to destroy the embryo.