Chapter Six The Republican Experiment 1776-1791
As the Revolution Continued • The New Nation created a government under the Articles of Confederation. • This was a weak national government • Partially designed to avoid the “tyranny” of the Crown in England
States Were Experimenting with Government • Setting up their own constitutions • These documents created strong states.
Changes in Society and Politics • Aristocracy replaced by equality • Repeal of primogeniture • Lower property requirements to vote • Inclusion of western settlers in state government • Steps to separate church and state
African Americans • Abolitionist Movement grows • Strong voices and role models • Benjamin Banneker • Phillis Wheatley • Slavery begins to die in the north • Prejudice and racism still alive • Slavery expands in South
Women’s Rights Abigail Adams • Women’s roles not determined by duties • Education • Equal authority in the home • Divorce initiative • Legal rights Lucy Knox
Common Features in State Constitutions • Belief in natural rights • List of individual rights • Separation of Powers (3) • Voting extended to white male property owners • Office holders held to a higher property qualification than voters
Articles of Confederation • Drafted in 1777 • By the 2nd Continental Congress • Issue of western land settled first • Ratification delayed until 1781 • People not ready for strong central government
Structure of the New Government • One Branch: Legislative • Unicameral • Each state had one vote • At least nine votes required to pass laws • Unanimous vote needed to amend the articles.
Powers of Congress • Wage war • Make treaties • Send diplomatic representatives • Borrow money
Powers Not Given to Congress • Regulate commerce • Collect taxes (states decided how much money to send to the federal government. • Power to enforce laws
Accomplishments • Winning the Revolutionary War • Treaty of Paris • Land Ordinance of 1785, public policy for western lands, supported public education. • Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Northwest Ordinance • 3-5 territories between Great Lakes and Ohio River • Government: Set up by Congress • Population reaches 5,000: Elect assembly • Population reaches 60,000: Write a constitution and apply for statehood
Financial Problems • War debts unpaid • Worthless paper money issued • Without the power to tax, national needs went unmet.
Foreign Problems • Little respect for new nation that could not pay her debts. • Britain and Spain renewed interest in Western lands.
Domestic Problems • Domestic uprisings occur as a result of the power vacuum. • Shays’ Rebellion demonstrated that a stronger national government was needed.
Constitutional Convention • 1787 meeting on amending the Articles of confederation turned into a historical session where the constitution of the US was drafted. • Importance of James Madison in the formulation of the Constitution cannot be overemphasized.
Format of Government • Bicameral legislature • Three branches of government with shared powers • Division of powers between federal and state governments • Unique document for its time.
Document of Compromise • Two houses of Congress • One based on population (VA) • One based on equality (NJ) • Great Compromise
Compromise on Slavery • Three-fifths Compromise. • Foreign Slave Trade would stop in 1808.
Compromise on Commerce Placed tariff on imports but did not place taxes on exports.
Articles vs. Constitution Complete the chart comparing the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution.
Debate over the Constitution • Division between Federalists and Anti- federalists demonstrated that very different visions of America and the scope of the federal government existed in the US at this time.
The Debate Federalist Anti-Federalist Strong state / weak nation Constitution omits rights Addition of Bill of Rights People need protection from the government Strong executive would tend to be like king • Strong Nation /weak state • Constitution as is • Bill of Rights not necessary • Government and people are the same • Executive necessary for strong nation
FEDERALISTS George Washington James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay ANTI-FEDERALISTS George Clinton Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson Richard Henry Lee Leadership
Federalist / Anti-Federalist Activity • Complete activity