Week of N ovember 7: Monday 11/7: Check that you have study ques , picture, personal statement complete for your Enlightenment person Wednesday 11/9: C 19 sec 1 terms due C 19 sec 2 ques #1b-4c due Friday 11/11: Veteran's Day guest speaker: Mike Train
Week of November 7: Monday 11/7: Check that you have study ques, picture, personal statement complete for your Enlightenment person Wednesday 11/9: C 19 sec 1 terms due C 19 sec 2 ques #1b-4c due Friday 11/11: Veteran's Day guest speaker: Mike Train Enlightenment salon discussion (prop/costume) = Monday 11/14 Tuesday 11/15: C 19 sec 1 and 2 quest
How do you KNOW that the earth revolves around the sun?
C 19: Enlightenment and Revolution How do you think centers of learning influenced how Europeans viewed the world in the 1700s?
Who is Ptolemy? What does he say about the earth? How did he come to this conclusion? When was he challenged and by whom? What did these challengers say? Label each solar system diagram with the scientist who developed it
Section 1: The Scientific Revolution What changes led to the dawn of modern science? What discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution? How did early scientists advance knowledge in biology and chemistry? How did scientific ideas move beyond the realm of science and affect society?
Dawn of Modern Science What changes led to the dawn of modern science? Dawn of Modern Science Geocentric view of the world – (Aristotle, Ptolemy)- supported by Church Introduction of scientific advancements from Arabs led to questioning of the Church as authority on scientific matters Age of Exploration allowed for new points of view to be considered Eventually developed the SCIENTIFIC METHOD (Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes)? Experimentation Reason/ Logic
What does the Church think of this?
Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics and Math What discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution? Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics and Math Nicklaus Copernicus- early 1500s = heliocentric theory First to complete model of the solar system – didn’t publish his findings until the year of his death WHY? Tycho Brahe (1572)= Danish astronomer (wanted to prove Copernicus wrong) BUT w Johannes Kepler proved elliptical orbit of planets around sun and solved Copernicus’ math problems Galileo Galilei= Italian scientist (1609) invented the telescope/ stars Sir Isaac Newton = English scientist (1687) law of universal gravitation and calculus (used to predict the effects of gravity)
Nicholas Copernicus 1473-1543 “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”, 1543 Johannes Kepler: 1600s supported Copernicus Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 Heliocentric 1609
Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry How did early scientists advance knowledge in biology and chemistry? Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry WHY IS THIS Andreas Vesalius – Flemish doctor (1539 -anatomy) IMPORTANT? William Harvey – English physician (early 1600s -heart) Antony Leeuwenhoek – Dutch scientist (late 16oos- microscope) Robert Hooke – English physicist (cell) Robert Boyle – (1661- Father of Modern Chemistry) Boyle’s Law (describes how temperature, volume and pressure affect gases) Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier – French chemist (1700s- Law of Conservation of Mass- matter can’t be created or destroyed)
Science and Society How did scientific ideas move beyond the realm of science and affect society? Science and Society Role of the Catholic Church in a changing culture? Church +/- on scientific discoveries and innovations (how?) Galileo , Copernicus and the Church? 1632: The Inquisition Effect of Science? = Art of the Renaissance (chemistry of paints/ light) Effect of Science? = questioning social institutions (government, religion, economics and education) How might government and religion be affected by the Scientific Revolution?
Accurate Instruments Scientific method New models of solar system Advances in math, anatomy and chemistry Conflicts with the church
We are all on a cruise ship that suddenly has been shipwrecked on a coral reef in the South Pacific. We all safely swim to the shore of a small island. WRITE on a piece of paper the first three steps that you would try to accomplish in order to establish order on the island until HELP arrives.
C 19: The Enlightenment (1600s – 1700s) Can the same laws that have been observed in the natural world also be applied to society??? SALON The problems of the world could be solved by educated people How was the Enlightenment influenced by reason? What new views did philosophers have about government? What new views did philosophers have about society? How did Enlightenment spread?
An Enlightenment Salon 2:58 Philosophers and scholars across Europe began to re-think long held beliefs about the human condition and the rights and liberties of ordinary citizens.
Philosophes: REASON= Truth could be discovered through reason NATURE = natural was good and reasonable HAPPINESS= rejected medieval gloom/afterlife PROGRESS = society could improve LIBERTY = wanted liberties that the English gained In English Civil War
(Francis Bacon) Scientific Method: Identify a problem or research question to be answered Form a hypothesis that can be tested Perform experiments to test the hypothesis Record the results Analyze the results of the experiments that either proves or disproves the hypothesis What should the role of government be? The Enlightenment John Locke 1632-1704 Self government Political equality Natural rights Tabula rasa “blank slate” Human beings are reasonable and generally good Philosophes Rene Descartes 1596-1650 Cogito ergo sum: “I think, therefore I am” Analytical geometry Jean Jacques Rousseau: 1712-1788 Classical republicanism Human beings are naturally good = “natural state” Natural state corrupted by society thus creating the need for a social contract Sir Issac Newton: 1643-1727 Universal gravitation Three laws of motion Charles Montesquieu: 1689-1755 Separation of powers Three branches of government Acknowledged three forms of govt: Aristocracy, Republic, Despotic
C 19 sec 1: What were the causes and effects of the Scientific Revolution? C 19 sec 2: How did the Enlightenment effect the role of the individual in government? How did Thomas Hobbes and John Locke’s ideas differ in terms of this role? CAUSE EFFECT ENLIGHTENMENT
Enlightened Despots Joseph II of Austria Serfdom = abolished Eliminated torture And death penalty Free food for peasants Religious tolerance Frederick II of Prussia Serfdom= not ended Influenced by Voltaire Abolished torture Pro education Catherine the Great Serfdom = ended then restored Constitution/ Code of Laws
Legacy of the Enlightenment Belief in PROGRESS A more SECULAR outlook/ weakened organized religion Importance of the INDIVIDUAL/ consent of the governed Natural rights (Locke) Separation of powers/ checks and balances (Montesquieu) Freedom of thought and expression (Voltaire) Abolishment of torture (Beccaria) Religious freedom (Voltaire) Women’s equality (Wollstonecraft)
Nicolas Copernicus Boyle Thomas Hobbes Smith Johan Sebastian Bach Diderot Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Harvey George Frederick Handel Francis Bacon Wollstonecraft Galileo Galilei Vesalius Ptolemy Frederick the Great Aristotle Catherine the Great John Locke Joseph II Isaac Newton Montesquieu Voltaire Rousseau