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DITA Enterprise Content Metamodel

DITA Enterprise Content Metamodel

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DITA Enterprise Content Metamodel

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  1. DITA Enterprise Content Metamodel

  2. Introduction

  3. Objectives • Develop a universal metamodel to describe typical business document content • Identify reusable semantic structures with a compatible granularity to the DITA standard • Describe a framework for adoption of a DITA standard for enterprise business documents

  4. Scope • The metamodel is designed specifically for business documents • Business documents represent a specific subset of business records used within an enterprise • Business documents are typically controlled requiring revisions and approvals • They may be internal or external customer-facing materials • The model attempts to integrate with rather than replace existing information systems • The model is not intended to dispense with vast amounts of dissimilar or unstructured information used within an enterprise

  5. Business Documents Typically include controlled items such as: Typically do not include items such as: Memoranda and correspondence Newsletters and social media Third-party materials Database and financial output These items along with business documents represent business records • Policies and procedures • Product development/maintenance documentation • Technical publications • Sales and marketing materials

  6. Research • Content Models • Information Mapping™ • DITA • Document Models • Military Specifications (S1000D, 2361, 2167, 498) • ISO (9000, 15489) • Business Object Models • Rational Unified Process/Unified Modeling Language • Zachman Framework • Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)

  7. Nature of Business Documents • Business documents are typically a conglomeration of different types of information written narratively with little consideration for semantic structure • Business documents require extensive metadata for proper administrative management and retrieval • Business documents are typically process-driven arising from specific events or handoff in the process • Business documents often contain or reference content created earlier in the process • While there are no widely adopted standards for content models, there are typical document types and recognizable structures in most business documents

  8. Single-Source Authoring • Single-source authoring practices have reached a state of maturity within technical publications well beyond those in business documentation • Repeatable single-source authoring practices enable collaboration on content creation • Single-source authoring improves content quality, consistency, and maintainability • Single-source authoring requires a level of sophistication that eludes most business users

  9. Granularity • Granularity of reuse within business documents appears to be more complex than in typical technical publications • Size of reusable components varies from a single-statement to collections of nested topics • Application of reusable components may be used across far more diverse audiences • Granularity must be defined as well by the ownership and lifecycle of the component within the metamodel • Information must be captured into a single source and managed according to robust rules for reuse using progressive disclosure to determine the granularity

  10. Traceability • Businesses use many purpose-built applications and databases to manage business information such as: • Requirements management tools • Bug tracking systems • Software testing tools • These systems contain content that can make its way into documents and reports used across the enterprise • They also contain traceability used to validate the information, provide notification, and trigger changes • The metamodel should incorporate traceability for business documents to integrate with these systems

  11. Knowledge Management • Knowledge is rarely captured directly in business documents and is most often compiled indirectly by document authors • Information is gathered from multiple sources and subject matter experts and distilled into documents before it is thrown over the wall – the information is written and forgotten about • Over time, the knowledge loses relevance or is lost • The metamodel breaks content down into manageable chunks that can be controlled by the subject matter experts and compiled into traditional documents

  12. Accountability • A convergence of factors are driving business towards solutions that make management of information within their enterprise more effective • Process certification, regulatory requirements, needs for improved efficiency and quality push the demand for better controls over how information is managed • These demands require better metadata, finer granularity of information, centralization, process automation, information ownership and traceability • The metamodel breaks information down into chunks that can be accountable to appropriate role-based functions within the enterprise irrespective of how or when the information is published

  13. Enterprise Content Management

  14. Evolution of the Enterprise Topic • What is a topic? • Topics are the fundamental building blocks used to capture knowledge about any given subject • Topics represent a single source of information within a repository • Topics are designed to be used and reused in their entirety or in part through progressive disclosure • Topics are independent of any containing document or map and can be used in any appropriate context • Topics naturally fit within a global ontology describing the enterprise and are traceable to other topics

  15. Content Classes

  16. Content Lifecycle Output: Information Product Repository: Information Core Input: Topics

  17. Reusability

  18. Traceability

  19. Modeling Enterprise Content • The model started as a map of dozens of dissimilar types of content found within an enterprise linked in various ways through traceability • For example • RFP elements were linked to proposal elements • Proposal elements were linked to requirement elements • Requirement elements were linked to design elements • Design elements were linked to specification elements • Specification elements were linked to procedural elements • As information changed in one element, other elements within the chain were impacted

  20. Boiling the Ocean • As the content types were boiled down by matching similarities between the types, a common set of 11 base content types emerged along with common dependencies • These content types formed within an elegant symmetry to answer the basic questions of who, how, what, why, when and where • The three primary DITA information types of concept, task, and reference stood out clearly among the 11 base types within the metamodel

  21. Gathering of Information Types • Why? • Objectives • Who? • Resource • Ability • Activity • What? • Requirement • Design • Reference • How? • Concept • Governance • Task • Event • When? • Event • Objective • Where? • Event • Resource

  22. Why? How? What? Who? Enterprise Content Metamodel Objective Standard DITA Proposed Concept Requirement Resource Governance Design Ability Activity Reference Task Where? Resource Event Event Objective When? Event

  23. The Task information type is central to the model Task describes how something is performed Reference describes the tools used in the Task Task produces an Event Activity describes what is to be performed by the Task Governance describes limitations on the Task Concept provides terms for Governance Concept Governance Activity Reference Event Task-based Information Task

  24. Concept Task Governance Activity Reference Event Task Type • Description • Based on the DITA Task topic type • Describes one or more steps needed to accomplish an action • Dependencies • Reference • Governance • Activity • Event • Examples • User procedures and Instructions • Processes • Test cases

  25. Sample Markup <task> <title></title> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <taskbody> <prereq></prereq> <steps> <step><cmd> </cmd></step> <step><cmd> </cmd></step> </steps> </taskbody> <related-links></related-links> </task> Sample Content Log onto the network Once logged on to the network, you will be able to work online. You must have received log-in details from IT before proceeding with your log-in attempt. Caution: Do not attempt to log onto the network without current login credentials. 1. Press <CTRL> + <ALT> + <DELETE> 2. Enter user name and password 3. Click Enter See also: Login Attempts Concept Task Governance Activity Reference Event Task Construction

  26. Event Type Concept Governance Activity Reference Task • Description • Describes an event • Consists of an event along with optional date/time, place, summary, description, status, acceptability, and recommendation • Dependencies • Task • Objective • Examples • Test results • Problem/incident report • Activity report Event

  27. Sample Markup <event> <title></title> <summary> <date/> <location/> </summary> <eventbody> <eventdetails></eventdetails> <acceptability></acceptability> <recommendations></recommendations> </eventbody> <related-links/> </event> Sample Content Login attempt failed 10/03/2008: User was unable to log onto the network with verified login credentials. User attempted to log onto the OASIS network through Abacus using his most recent login information contained in a system email. The system gave the user the following error message: ERROR: Cannot log onto DNS server. User account mismatch on file. This is not the expected behaviour for a user login. Check the PKI domain tables to ensure the settings are correct for this user. See also: QA-02512 Steps to reproduce error Event Construction Concept Governance Activity Reference Task Event

  28. Governance Type Concept Governance Activity Reference Task • Description • Applies conceptual information providing guidance or limitations on performing Tasks • Consists of a statement along with optional conditions, scope, remedies, consequences, and background information • Dependencies • Concept [Parent]: Changes may prompt changes to Governance • Task [Child]: Changes to Governance may prompt changes to Task • Examples • Cautions, warning, and notes • Policies • Guidelines Event

  29. Sample Markup <governance> <title></title> <statement></statement> <govbody> <conditions></conditions> <penalties></penalties> <remedies></remedies> </govbody> <related-links/> </governance> The Governance information type as it is being defined within the focus area. Sample Content Login Attempts Do not attempt to log onto the network without current login credentials. After 10 failed login attempts, the system will lockout your workstation and prevent it from connecting to the network. If your workstation is locked out, contact the IT Service Desk for assistance. See also: Log onto the network Governance Construction Concept Governance Activity Reference Task Event

  30. Concept Type Concept Governance Activity Reference Task • Description • Based on the DITA Concept topic type • Defines and explains terms used • Dependencies • Objective [Parent]: Changes may prompt changes to Concepts • Guidance [Child]: Changes to Concept may prompt changes to Governance • Examples • Definitions • Industry Standards • Whitepapers Event

  31. Sample Markup <concept> <title></title> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <conbody> <paraclass/> </conbody> <related-links/> </concept> The Concept information type is based off of the DITA Concept topic. Sample Content Secure Passwords Secure passwords ensure that intruders are unable to assume your identity and compromise network security. Secure passwords can take many forms. Generally, passwords should be more than six characters long, any less and the ability to crack the password increases by 425%, according to NetSpy. Consider passwords that include a mix of alpha characters and numbers. See also: Network Password Policy Login Attempts Concept Construction Concept Governance Activity Reference Task Event

  32. Concept Resource Governance Activity Reference Task Ability Event Resource-based Information • Activity describes what is to be performed • Activity is performed by a Resource • Activity requires a certain Ability • Resource possesses given Ability Activity

  33. Activity Type Resource Ability Activity • Description • Describes what needs to be accomplished and criteria for measuring performance • Does not describe “how” it is to be done (see Task) • Consists of an item along with optional summary, description, constraints, and evaluation criteria • Dependencies • Resource [Parent]: Changes to Resource may prompt changes • Ability [Child]: Changes to Activity may require new Abilities • Task [Child]: Changes to Activity may require new Tasks • Examples • Job description • Service Level Agreement • Action items

  34. Sample Markup <activity> <title></title> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <activitybody> <details></details> <constraints></constraints> <criteria></criteria> </activitybody> <related-links/> </activity> Activity and Governance types are very similar. The main distinction is that an Activity applies to a Resource whereas a Governance type applies to everyone and is not specific to any Resource. An Activity is a commitment made by a Resource. Sample Content Setting Up Account for New Hires Network accounts are to be set up prior to the first day of work for new-hires. New accounts are created when triggered by the New Hire Process. A problem ticket will arrive and be resolved by the IT Service Desk. New hires that are not subject to the New Hire Process may not have accounts set up during their first week of work. The IT Service Desk requires seven-days notice for new account setup. See also: Service Desk Specialist Activity Construction Resource Ability Activity

  35. Resource Type Resource Ability Activity • Description • Identifies a Resource within an organization • May be a named person, job role, department, or other group of related persons • Consists of a name along with optional details and hierarchy • Dependencies • Objective [Parent]: Changes to Objectives may modify Resources • Activity [Child]: Resources are responsible for given Activities • Ability [Child/Parent]: Resources possess and/or require Abilities • Examples • Biographical information • Description of organization • Contact record

  36. Sample Markup <resource> <name></name> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <resourcebody> <details></details> <characteristics></characteristics> </resourcebody> <related-links/> </resource> Because a Resource can describe any number of individuals or groups there is not a lot of semantic structure. In its basic root form, the body would be similar to that of a concept body. The semantics are introduced through specializations into topics describing departments, individuals, or roles. The hierarchical position of this topic placed within other Resource type topics is very significant indicating reporting relationships within an organization. Sample Content Service Desk Specialist The Service Desk Specialist is a member of the IT Service Desk. This role is typically the first-line of response to customer inquiries and complaints. The Service Desk Specialist reports to the Service Desk Shift Supervisor and may be responsible for supervising Co-Op placements and new-hires. Core competencies: English/French, Fluent Spoken, Intermediate ITIL Certification Services include: Registering Incidents, Setting Up Accounts See: Sue Green Resource Construction Resource Ability Activity

  37. Ability Type Resource Ability Activity • Description • Describes level of competency required for performing tasks • Consists of a competency along with optional summary, description, level, and evaluation criteria • Dependencies • Resource [Parent/Child]: Resources possess and/or require Abilities • Activity [Parent]: Changes to Activities may require changes to Abilities • Examples • Competency matrix • Employee evaluation • Training plan

  38. Sample Markup <ability> <title></title> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <abilitybody> <details></details> <constraints></constraints> <criteria></criteria> </abilitybody> <related-links/> </ability> Ability topics are semantically similar to Activity topics in their base state. Additional semantic detail can be introduced through specialization. As with the Resource type, Ability topics are very hierarchical with peer and sibling topics indicating levels of ability. Sample Content Multilingualism An ability to communicate in more than one language. At ABC, Corp. employees may be required to work in the native language of our customers and partners. Competency levels are divided by the number of languages and fluency in each language. Languages spoken at ABC, Corp. other than English include: French, Cantonese, and Spanish Competency Levels: English/French, Fluent Spoken English/French, Fluent Written Spoken Ability Construction Resource Ability Activity

  39. Concept Requirement Resource Task Governance Activity Reference Ability Design Event Product-based Information • Reference describes a tool and its benefits and features • Design describes how the tool is built to Requirements • Requirement governs Design and functionality Reference

  40. Reference Type Requirement Reference Design • Description • Based on DITA Reference topic type • Describes details, features, and/or facts about an object • Dependencies • Requirement [Parent]: Changes to Requirements may produce gap specifications • Design [Parent]: Changes to Design may prompt changes to the Reference topic • Task [Child]: Changes to the Reference may prompt changes to related Tasks • Examples • Product specification • Screen capture with callouts • Publication specification

  41. Sample Markup <reference> <title></title> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <refbody> <example></example> <characteristics></characteristics> <section></section> </refbody> <related-links/> </reference> The hierarchical arrangement of Reference topics to describe base-line functionality of a system is significant. Sample Content PM_1202: Network Login Dialog Dialog permits users to enter account credentials and submit them for network verification to establish a connection. ┌─User Login ───────────────────┐ │User:_________________________ │ │Password:_____________________ │ │ SUBMIT CANCEL │ └───────────────────────────────┘ Field Description Note User Enter name Not Case Sent Password Enter password Case Sensitive API Calls The dialog can be accessed using the following API call: LaunchLogDia.Run.UI See also: PMCS 90022: NetLog.corba Reference Construction Requirement Reference Design

  42. Design Type Requirement Reference Design • Description • Explains how something is designed to work • Does not describe how it is (see Reference) • Consists of an item along with optional inputs, outputs, parameters, description, limitations, and logic • Dependencies • Requirement [Parent]: Changes to Requirements may prompt changes to the Design • Reference [Child]: Changes to Design may prompt changes to the Reference topic • Examples • Preliminary/Detailed Design • Logic diagrams • Content Plan

  43. Sample Markup <design> <title></title> <shortdesc></shortdesc> <designbody> <paraclass/> </designbody> <related-links/> </design> Design topics represent information used by developers, and product designers to create products. It describes how something works on an abstract level. This can represent a large number of specializations to accommodate design of software, hardware, drugs, publications, etc. At its most basic level, there are few specialized elements. Sample Content PMCS 90022: NetLog.corba Module displays login dialog and submits data to DNS server for routing. Inputs userName.pki userPass.pks Interface Logic Function NetLog() { Go.Log(userName,userPass); If Go.Log = “Pass” then { Goto.DNSPass; } else end; } See also: PM_1202: Network Login Dialog Design Construction Requirement Reference Design

  44. Requirement Type Requirement Reference Design • Description • Describes what an object must do • Does not describe what the object does (see Reference) nor how it should do it (see Design) • Consists of a statement along with optional description, parameters, dependencies, performance and ranking • Dependencies • Objective [Parent]: Changes may prompt changes to the Requirement • Design [Child]: Changes may prompt changes to the Design • Reference [Child]: Changes to the Requirement may prompt changes to the Reference topic (particularly where there is no Design) • Examples • Product Requirement Specification • RFP elements • User needs analysis

  45. Sample Markup <requirement> <title></title> <need></need> <reqbody> <details></details> <constraints></constraints> <criteria></criteria> </reqbody> <related-links/> </requirement> Service objects and Governance objects are very similar. The main distinction is that a Service object applies to a Resource whereas a Governance object does not apply to a specific Resource as it applies to everyone. A Service is a commitment made by a Resource. Sample Content Unique User Login Each user must be able to log onto the network using a secure password and assigned user name. Before working on the network, the user must submit a valid login to the network server for validation. The system shall provide appropriate user-feedback for incorrect login attempts. Group logins shall not be permitted. If the user repeatedly fails login attempts, the system shall prevent further connection attempts. See also: PM_1202: Network Login Dialog PMCS 90022: NetLog.corba Requirement Construction Requirement Reference Design

  46. Objective describes the goals, business reasons, or mission affecting change Resources, Concepts, and Requirements are suited to meet an Objective Objectives may be related to previous Events Concept Requirement Resource Governance Resource Concept Requirement Activity Reference Ability Design Task Event Business-based Information Objective Event

  47. Resource Concept Requirement Objective Type Objective • Description • Describes the goals of an organization, project, product, or idea • Consists of a goal along with optional description, evaluation criteria, target date • Dependencies • Resource, Concept, and Requirement [Child]: Changes to an Objective may prompt new child topics • Event [Parent]: Results may alter or prompt for new Objectives • Examples • Project planning elements • Employee performance plan • Corporate charter

  48. Sample Markup <objective> <title></title> <goal><goaldate/></goal> <objectivebody> <details></details> <constraints></constraints> <criteria></criteria> </objectivebody> <related-links/> </objective> Sample Content Improve IT Security Practices Q2 2009: Corporate IT will develop new policies and procedures to improve security practices in preparation for ISO:27001 audit. Resource Concept Requirement Objective Construction Objective

  49. Abstract Information Types • Upon examination of the semantic substructures for these 11 content types, we identified similarities between several of the types precipitating the creation of 6 abstract information types • The abstract information types are derived directly from the base topic type and form the basis for all information contained within the model • Explanatory • Procedural • Descriptive • Directive • Criterial • Temporal

  50. Inheritance from Abstract Layer