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Prototyping and Design

Prototyping and Design

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Prototyping and Design

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  1. Prototyping and Design HCC 729 2/27/14

  2. What’s new? • Inspirations / UI design • Questions about assignments • Feedback on user tests • Interesting UARs • Other surprises

  3. How to prototype your ideas Partially adapted from ac4d online materials

  4. http://library.ac4d.com/

  5. “Humans are really interesting. If you show them your idea in a prototype form, very few people will tell you what’s right about it… But everybody will tell you what’s wrong with it.” David Kelly, IDEO

  6. What is a Prototype?

  7. What is a prototype? • Prototype = “working” model • Common in almost every field of engineering design • Airplanes, chemical structures, architecture… • In HCI Prototypes are • Full-size or to scale • Fully or partially functioning • Limited representation of an idea • Virtual or physical

  8. Prototype examples

  9. Prototype Examples • A series of screen sketches (paper) • A storyboard, cartoon-like series of scenes illustrating key points of a scenario • A PowerPoint Slide show • A video simulating the use of a system • A piece of software with limited functionality written in the target language or in another language • An electronic mock-up (hardware) • A cardboard mock-up

  10. Why Prototype? Why bother making one? We are all experts, right?

  11. Why Prototype? • To identify user interface and functional requirements • Almost impossible to specify in advance • Can’t always get things right the first time…

  12. Why Prototype? • Reveals problems/prevents mistakes • Building artifacts immediately leads to costly errors • We can often avoid expensive development by building reasonable prototypes

  13. Why Prototype? • Enables quick evaluation and feedback throughout design process • Fosters discussion, reflection and innovative ideas (from designers and users): concrete artifact • Keeps design focused on users • Cheap, easy way to test designs with users • Help choose between design alternatives (risky/critical features, go/no-go decisions) • Help answer specific questions • Users enjoy prototyping and feel involved • Provides continuous feedback on the current design situation

  14. Prototyping: When/How? Early Design Late Design Brainstorm different representations Choose a representation Rough out interface Style Task centered walkthrough and redesign Fine tune interface, screen design Heuristic evaluation and redesign Usability testing and redesign Limited field testing Alpha/Beta tests Low fidelity paper prototypes Medium fidelity prototypes High fidelity prototypes Working Systems

  15. Prototyping Stages Evaluate Prototype Design Redesign

  16. Choose your compromises wisely… All prototypes involve compromise

  17. Prototype Compromises • Examples of compromises in software-based prototyping: • Slow reaction time • Limited functionality • Use “placeholder” images: clipart, stock icons • Simulate data or input • Two common types of compromise: horizontal and vertical

  18. Horizontal vs. Vertical Horizontal “thin” prototype Vertical “thick” prototype

  19. Horizontal vs. Vertical • Horizontal Designs • First level of user interface is fully present • No, or limited, functionality (but looks complete) • Fast implementation • Full extent of interface can be tested, but not in a real-use context • Often does not capture the interaction “feel” • Vertical Designs • Restricted to a subset of the system • This subset offers the interface and functionality • Can undertake realistic testing

  20. Fidelity • Designers create prototypes at multiple levels of detail,or Fidelity • Example: Web sites are iteratively refined at all levels of detail Mock-ups Site Maps Schematics Storyboards High Low Fidelity

  21. Fidelity Example

  22. Fidelity in Prototyping • Low Fidelity • Quickly made representations of interface, interaction is imagined • Medium Fidelity • Prototypes that are more finalized than low fidelity, simulate interaction • High Fidelity • Prototypes that look like the final product, build interaction elements • Will cover in a future lecture….

  23. What tools do I need? Suggestions?

  24. What is this device?

  25. What is this device?

  26. A prototyping tale… Anyone know what this device is?

  27. The Apple Newton • First significant PDA (1993) • Handwriting recognition builtinto it! • Huge failure on the market. • Too big and heavy to carry • Too slow to run most applications • Handwriting detection was not very accurate

  28. Redesigning the Newton • After failure of the Newton, two of its inventors left Apple to design a new device and used techniques from all areas of HCI. • Identified that the Newton failed because it was too big and too slow. • Focused on exploring the form of the device through “block of wood prototypes” which Jeff Hawkins carried around to decide what the correct form should be. • Redesigned the hardware specifications so it would fit with the smaller form. • The basic Pilot 1000 retailed for $299, half the price of a Newton.

  29. Additional information • When working out the Palm's handwriting recognition system, Graffiti, Hawkins said he scribbled notes all day on a pad of paper. But he didn't write the letters side by side. Instead he scrawled them one on top of each other -- just the way it's done on the Palm -- ending up with indecipherable blobs on the page. • Hawkins told how his make-pretend method led him to conclude that voice recognition will never be a good way to control computers -- a notion that goes against current wisdom, including Microsoft's, which is sinking millions of dollars into researching the endeavor. • Hawkins said when he's sat around pretending to control his computer by voice the experience is unsatisfactory and uncompelling. • Quotes from wired.com article about Jeff Hawkins: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1999/10/32010

  30. Result of Newton Redesign

  31. Low Fidelity Prototyping

  32. Low Fidelity Prototypes • Paper Prototypes • Paper mock-up of the interface look, feel, functionality • Quick and cheap to prepare and modify • Purpose • Brainstorm competing representations • Elicit user reactions • Elicit user modifications / suggestions

  33. Why Use Low Fidelity Prototypes • Traditional methods take too long • Sketches -> prototype -> evaluate -> iterate • Can simulate the prototype • Sketches -> evaluate -> iterate • Sketches act as prototypes • Designer “plays computer” • Other design team members observe and record • “Kindergarten” implementation skills. • Allows non-programmers to participate

  34. Low Fidelity Prototyping • Uses a medium which is unlike the final medium, e.g. paper, cardboard represent software • Quick, cheap and easily changed • Support the exploration of alternative designs and ideas • Best in early stage of development and not intended to be final product • For exploration ONLY: concepts, look and feel, iron out usability issues early on • Examples • Sketches of screens, task sequences, etc • “Post - it” notes • Storyboards

  35. Low Fidelity Prototypes • Sketching is important • Don’t be inhibited about drawing ability, practice simple symbols • Develop your own symbols and icons Interactions People Computer

  36. Paper Prototyping Rules • Set deadline (don’t spend too long) • Draw window on large paper • Draw different screen regions on index cards and them put on the window paper • Ready responses for any user action (“magic mouse” can make anything a link) • Photocopy to make test version • Test, markup, and iterate

  37. Tools of the trade

  38. Index Cards • Index cards (3”x5”)… a great size! • Each card represents one screen or one element of a task • Great for software prototypes with multiple screens • Website design • Mobile devices • Windows of software

  39. Index Cards (Example) • Include enough detail for users to interact with the prototype

  40. Make a Low Fidelity Prototype • This example gives an overview of the layout without any detail - a good starting point • Numerous alternatives can be quickly created without worrying about details • Should be produced in pencil (so you can easily change it) • Should be hand-drawn (rulers take too much effort)

  41. Is this a good low fidelity prototype? An example of a “tidy” prototype • More difficult to change this prototype than hand drawn sketches (even if you use a fancy drawing package) • It is highly unlikely that the first (or 2nd, or 3rd, or 4th) designs will be completely correct • Designs that are hard to amend, won’t be amended. • No benefit over the hand-drawn sketches, just took longer to make, and less likely to get good feedback • Do you really want to make one of these for all 10 of the designs you want to evaluate? WRONG!! Prototype at the right fidelity!!!

  42. Make a Low Fidelity Prototype Once you like your layout, you can focus on details of the design • example data values, menu content, buttons, labels, etc • More specific layout of interface objects • You can even annotate your paper prototype!

  43. Fancier LowFidelity Prototypes Once the details are ironed out, you can create your interface “toolkit” • Cut out each of the components (windows, dialogs, menus, etc) into it’s own window • These can be used to dynamically simulate the entire interface following a storyboard, or flow.

  44. Useful Low Fidelity Tools • Large, heavy, white paper • Index cards • Tape, stick glue, correction tape • Pens & markers (many colors and sizes) • Large sheet of foam core, poster board, butcher paper • Scissors, X-acto knives • Band-aids Explore your local art store for supplies!

  45. Low Fidelity Advantages • Can “build” entire site quickly • No expensive equipment required • Can simulate almost anything • Anyone can implement prototypes • Anyone can participate in your design process! • Fast iterations: # iterations has positive impact on quality of final design. • Always want to explore multiple ideas, so you don’t fall into “Local Maximum”

  46. Low Fidelity Disadvantages • Not detailed enough to implement from • Need to be facilitated when presented to users • Does not address issues that arise from implementation • Some interactions are hard to simulate with paper • dragging, pull down menus, selections • system speed/latency • Form is not always clear • device size • ergonomics • appearance • Can be a barrier to spend the effort to create prototypes

  47. Summary: Low Fidelity Prototypes • Traditional methods take too long, can do in a few hours • No expensive equipment required • Can simulate almost anything • Anyone can implement • Fast iterations: # iterations has impact on quality of final design.

  48. Testing with low fidelity prototypes • Like conducting a user test / think aloud • Concrete tasks • Quiet environment • Let the user guide the process • One experimenter acts as the “computer”

  49. Medium Fidelity Wizard of Oz… (to come later)