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SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT. By DR.S.Santhosh baboo. PROJECT:. The dictionary definition put a clear emphasis on the project being a planned activity The characteristic which distinguish project as Non routine task are involved Planning is required Specific objectives are to be met.

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  2. PROJECT: The dictionary definition put a clear emphasis on the project being a planned activity The characteristic which distinguish project as • Non routine task are involved • Planning is required • Specific objectives are to be met

  3. Work is carried out for someone other than yourself • Work involves several specialisms • Work is carried out in several phases • The project is large • The resources are available for use on the project are constrained

  4. MANAGEMENT: Management involves following activities: • Planning –deciding what to be done • Organizing-making arrangement • Staffing-selecting right people for right job • Directing-giving instruction • monitoring-checking on progress • Controlling-taking action to remedy hold-ups

  5. Innovating-coming up with new solution • Representing-liasing with clients, users, developers, suppliers and stakeholders

  6. MANAGING SOFTWARE PRODUCT: Worldwide, some half a million project managers execute about a million software projects each year, producing software worth $600 billion. Many of these projects fail to fulfill customers‘ quality expectations or fail to deliver the software within budget and on schedule. One analysis suggests that1about one-third of projects have cost and schedule overruns of more than 125%.

  7. Why do so many software projects fail? Although there are many reasons, one of the most important is improper management of the project.

  8. PROCESS AND MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS: A software project has two main activity dimensions: engineering and project management. The engineering dimension deals with building the system and focuses on issues such as how to design, test, code, and so on. The project management dimension deals with properly planning and controlling the engineering activities to meet project goals for cost, schedule, and quality.

  9. PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESS: For a project team to successfully execute a project, it must perform hundreds of tasks, many of them interdependent. Effectively managing this process is extremely important for success. At software companies, the set of activities executed by a project manager is specified in the project management process.

  10. It is fairly standard, having three main stages: • Project planning • Project execution • Project closure

  11. PROBLEM WITH SOFTWARE PROJECT: • Poor estimation and plain • Lack of quality of standard and measurement • Lack of guidance about making organizational decisions • Lack of techniques to make process visible • Poor roll definition

  12. STAKEHOLDERS: people who are having a stake or interest in the project. It is important that they be identified as possible, be cause you need to communicate channel with right from the start.

  13. REQUIRED SPECIFICATION: • Functional requirement • Quality requirement • Resource requirement

  14. STEP WISE PROJECT PLANNING: 0.Select Project 1.Identify scope and objectives 2.Identify project infrastructure 3.Analyse project characteristics 4.Identify products and activities

  15. 5.Estimate effort for each activity 6.Identify activity risks 7.Allocate resources 8.Review plan 9.Execute plan

  16. STEP 0: • select the project

  17. Step 1: • Identify the project scope and objectives. • identify the object and measurement of effectiveness in meeting them. • establish a project authority • identify stake holders

  18. Step 2: • Identify the project infrastructure • Establish relationship between project and strategic planning • Identify installation standards and procedure • Identify the project team organization

  19. Step 3: • Analyses the project characteristic • Distinguish the project as either objective or product driven • Analyses other project characteristic • Identify the high level project risk • Take into account user requirements concerning implementation

  20. Select general life cycle approach • Review overall resource estimation

  21. Step 4: • identify the product and the activities • Identify and describe project products • Document the generic product flows • Recognize the product instance • Product deal activities network • Modify deal to take into account need for stages and check point

  22. Step 5: • estimate effort for each activities • Carryout the bottom up estimation • Revise plan to create controllable activities

  23. Step 6: • identify the activity risk • Identify and describe quantify activity based risks • Plan risk reduction and contingency measures where appropriate • Adjust plans and estimates to take account of risks

  24. Step 7: • Allocate resources • Identify and allocate resources • Revise plans and estimates to take account of resource constraints

  25. Step 8: • Review/publicize plan • Review quality aspects of project plan • Document plans and obtain agreement

  26. Step 9/10: • Execute plan/lower level of planning • This may require the reiteration of the planning process at a lower level.

  27. SELECT THE PROJECT: • Deciding whether the project can be taken up or not • Technical,Organizational and Financial Feasibility is considered • Programme Management Group of projects managed in a coordinated way to gain benefits.

  28. DIFFERENT FORM OF PROGRAMME: • Strategic Programmes • Business cycle programmes • Research and development programmes

  29. PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT EVALUATION : • Program management • Managing the allocation of resources within programs • Strategic program management • Creating a program • Aids to programme management • Beneficial management

  30. Technical assessment • Evaluation of individual projects Cast-benefit analysis • Cash flow forecasting • Cost benefit evaluation techniques • Risk evaluation

  31. STRATEGIC PROGRAMMES: • Several projects implement single strategy] • Two Organizations  Unified Payroll • The Projects are coordinated and done according to the strategy

  32. BUSINESS CYCLE PROGRAMMES: • Specific budget for the projects • If one project is delayed, staff from other team can be used and resources also can be used

  33. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES: • New innovative ideas to develop new products • High risk if successful result is good

  34. CREATING A PROGRAMME: • The Programme Mandate • The Programme Brief • The Vision Statement • The Blue Print

  35. THE PROGRAMME MANDATE: Formal document describing New services programme should deliver How organization will be improved by new services Programme director provides initial leadership

  36. THE PROGRAMME BRIEF: • Information sufficient to decide about project(vision statement) • Estimates cost,performance and risk

  37. BLUE PRINT: • Organizational structure(staffs and skills) • Resources • Data and information requirements

  38. IDENTIFY PROJECT SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES: Scope and Objectives of the project are Constraints Meet requirements Cost control Identify stake holders and their interest Communication

  39. IDENTIFY PROJECT INFRASTRUCTURE: • Project should fit in existing infrastructure • Project manager should have full control over the project • Project Manager should be aware of Project planning and control

  40. SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE PROJECT APPROACH: • Choosing technologies • Technical plan contents list • Choice of process models • Structure versus speed of delivery • The waterfall model • Spiral model • Software prototyping • Incremental delivery

  41. Dynamic system development • Extreme programming • Managing iterative processes • Selecting a most appropriate process model

  42. PROJECT ANALYSIS: • Outcome of analysis will be selection of most appropriate methodologies and technologies • Methodologies(Unified Software Development Process (USDP), Structured system analysis and design methods (SSADM)) • Technologies(Environments , Software etc)

  43. STEPS IN PROJECT ANALYSIS: Identify project as either objective driven or product driven Analyses Project Characteristics Data driven or Process driven General tool or application specific Specific tools available(Graphics etc) Hardware and software environment Entertaining games or servicing

  44. CHOICE OF PROCESS MODELS: • The activities can be organized in different ways known as models(Process Models) • The various models are • Waterfall Model • V Process Model • Spiral Model

  45. WATER FALL MODEL: Feasibility study User Requirements Analysis System design Program design Coding Testing Operation

  46. V-PROCESS MODEL: User acceptance Feasibility study User acceptance User requirements System design System testing Program design Program testing Code

  47. SOFTWARE EFFORT ESTIMATION: • The definition of successful project is delivering the project on correct time within the budget at good quality • Hence estimation such as Lines of Code,Number of months have to be done • Estimates are carried out at various stages of the project

  48. BASIS FOR SOFTWARE ESTIMATION: • Need of historical data(past projects) • Measure of work(Lines of code) • Complexity(varies with the project)

  49. EFFORT ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES: • Function point method • Empirical model method

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