SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Human Resource Management Dr. Ahmet TÜMAY, PMP
Human Resource Management Include the processes that organize, manage andlead the project team. The project team is comprised of the people who have assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project The project management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for project management activities such as planning, executing, monitoring, controlling, and closingthevariousprojectphases (core, executive, or leadership team).
Sponsor ? • The project sponsor works with the project management team, typically assisting with matters such as project funding, clarifying scope questions, monitoringprogressand influencing stakeholdersforthe Project benefit. • If the project is being done for an outside customer (you are the seller) the customer may fulfill the role of the sponsor as well as customer, and some of these functions would be taken over by senior management in the performing organization.
Halo Effect • Halo Effect The tendency to rate high or low on all factors due to the impression of a high or low rating on some specific factor. This can mean, • "You are a great programmer. Therefore, we will make you a project manager and also expect you to be great." • Such actions have a negative impact on the project and the performing organization, yet seen to be common. For the exam, understand that these types of actions should be avoided.
Plan Human Resource Management • The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities,and required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan.
HR Planning Outputs • Roles and Responsibilities • Roles, Authority, Responsibility,Competency • Project Organization Charts • A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships. • Staffing Management Plan • a subset of the project management plan describes when and how human resource requirements will be met. • Staff acquisition • Timetable • Release criteria • Training needs • Recognition and rewards • Compliance • safety issues,
Acquire Project Team The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the teamnecessary to complete project activities. The project management team may ormay not have direct control over team member selection because ofproject environment.
Develop Project Team • The process of improving the competencies, team interaction, and the overallteam environment to enhance project performance • Improve skills of team to increase ability to complete project deliverables, while lowering costs, reducing schedules, and improving quality; • Improve trust and cohesiveness among team members to raise productivity through greater teamwork; • Create a dynamic and cohesive team culture to improve productivity, teamspirit, cooperation, mentoring in team
Develop PT Tools & Techniques • Interpersonal Skills • Interpersonal skills sometimes known as “soft skills,” are communicationskills, emotionalintelligence, conflictresolution, negotiation, influence, and group facilitation • Training • to enhance the competencies of the project members • Team-Building Activities • Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning • Ground Rules • acceptable behavior, values of Project team • Co-Location (war-room) • Recognition and Rewards
Manage Project Team • Manage Project Team involves tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.
Manage PT Inputs • Team Performance Assessment • The project management team makes ongoing formal or informal assessments of the project team’s performance to resolve issues, modify communication, address conflict, and improve team interaction. • Performance Reports • Provide documentation about performance against the project management plan. Examples of performance areas are schedule control, cost control, quality control and scope verification. • Used to determine future human resource requirements, recognition and rewards, and updates to the staffing management plan.
Manage PT Tools & Techniques • Observation and Conversation • Project Performance Appraisals • Evaluation information also can be gathered from people who interact with project team members by using 360-degree feedback principles. The term “360-degree” means that feedback regarding performance is provided to the person being evaluated from many sources, including superiors, peers, and subordinates. • Issue Log • As issues arise in the course of managing the project team, a written log can document persons responsible for resolving specific issues by a target date. The log helps the project team monitor issues until closure. Issue resolution addresses obstacles that can block the team from achieving its goal • Conflict Management
Leadership Styles • Project management is heavily dependent on managing people. Therefore, the project manager must determine the most appropriate leadership style for the needs of the project and for whatever part of the project they are in. Some of the choices are: • Directing Telling others what to do • Facilitating Coordinating the input of others • Coaching Instructing others • Supporting Providing assistance along the way • Autocratic Making decisions without input • Consultative Inviting ideas from others • Consensus Problem solving in a group with decision-making based on group agreement
Conflict Management • When managed properly, differences of opinion are healthy, and can lead to increased creativity and better decision-making. • When the differences become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for resolving their own conflicts. If conflict escalates, the project manager should help facilitate a satisfactory resolution. • Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. • If disruptive conflict continues, increasingly formal procedures will need to be used, including the possible use of disciplinary actions.
Conflict Management • Many project managers think that the main source of conflict on a project is personality differences. They may be surprised to learn that this is rarely the case. It only becomes personal if the root cause of the problem is not resolved. The following describes the seven sources of conflict in order of frequency. • Schedules • Project priorities • Resources • Technical opinions • Administrative procedures • Cost • Personality
Conflict Management • Conflict can be avoided through the following techniques: • Informing the team of: • Exactly where the project is headed • Project constraints and objectives • The contents of the project charter • All key decisions • Changes • Clearly assigning work without ambiguity or overlapping responsibilities • Making work assignments interesting and challenging
Conflict Resolution Techniques • Confronting (Problem Solving) First, did you notice that this has two names? Did you realize that both names mean the same thing? Confronting means solving the real problem so that the problem goes away. Confronting leads to a win-win situation. • Compromising Finding solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to both parties. This is a lose-lose situation since no party gets everything. Did you know that compromise is not the best choice, but rather second to confronting? • Withdrawal (Avoidance) Retreating or postponing a decision on a problem. Dealing with problems is a PMI-ism, therefore withdrawal is not usually the BEST choice for resolving conflict. • Smoothing Emphasizing agreement rather than differences of opinion. • Forcing Pushing one viewpoint at the expense of another.
Motivational Theory • McGregor's Theory of X and Y McGregor believed that all workers fit into oneof two groups, X and Y. • X: Managers who accept this theory believe that people need to be watched every minute. People are incapable, avoid responsibility and avoid work whenever possible. • Y: Managers who accept this theory believe that people are willing to work without supervision, and want to achieve. People can direct their own efforts.