KHUTBA HAJJATUL WIDALAST SERMON OF HOLY PROPHET PBUH By Muhammad Ali Khan
About Hujaat-al-wida • Fatah-e-Makkah 8th AH • Hajj was made Obligatory 9th AH (6 March 632 AH) • Hazrat Abu Bakkar RA first Ameer-e-Hajj • Sura-e-Tuba/Barrtrevelead after Fatah-e-Makkah • This Hajj/Hajj-ul-Islam/hall UlBilagh was called Hajj-e-Akbar(Sura Tuba Aya-3) • Sermon Delivered on 9thZulhajj in Arfat
Thematic Note • Principles of Civilization and Social Life • Human Rights • Guidelines for International Peace • Brotherhood • Peaceful co-existance • Social Justice and Social Equality
KhutbaHajjatulWida • It is considered as the first comprehensive charter of Human Rights delivered by the Prophet (SAW) on the occasion of Last Pilgrimage he performed. • It is the essence of the teaching of the Quran and Sunnah and provides essential foundations for establishment of an Islamic Welfare State. • Sections 2,3, 5,8,12,13,33,34,37,38,43, of this Khutba provide the foundation of a Welfare State. • The ingredients of the Khutba are scattered in Hadith and Seerah books. • Prominent scholar of Islamic history, Professor Dr. Nisar Ahmad, Ex-Dean of Arts, Karachi University, has compiled the whole Khutba in his Urdu book ‘KhutbaHajjatulWida’.
A complete Code • Part A Introductory • Part B Equality • Part C Protection • Part D Social and Economic Code • Part E Women Rights and Rights to Slaves • Part F Sources of Law • Part G Faiths and Completion of Deen
Introduction- Praise to Allah PART-A All praise be to Allah, in whose deference do we pay homage and from Whom we ask help and forgiveness. It is to Him that we turn and ask for refuge from our carnal mischief and wrong doings. Whomever Allah guides can never turn astray and one who is mislead by Him can never be solicited or guided And I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, the One, having no partner with Him, in either image or symbols. And I Muhammad am His Bondsman and His Messenger.
Ye People_huminity • A. Ye people: Listen to my words carefully and mark them, for who knows after this year we may never meet at this place again. • B. Ye People of God: I don’t know whether another year will be vouchsafed to me after this year to find myself amongst you. • C. Ye People: Observe silence, you might not be able to see me next year.
Cont… D. Ye People: Behold! I want to explain with elaboration everything, as perhaps after this year I might not be able to meet you ever. E. People: Learn every aspect pertaining to the rite of Hajj from me, for I may not be vouchsafed another pilgrimage. • F. May Allah nurture him with His Blessing, who listened to what I said, and disseminated it to others, as at times one who listens may not be wise, and the one to whom it is disseminated may be wiser.
Equality-First Message • Observe! Every one is equal. • There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab and of a non-Arab over an Arab. Neither a black over a white nor a white over a black has any superiority and distinction over each other except on the basis of piety and fear of God
Equality • Section.1 • Equality • You have one Lord and one father. You are all a progeny of Adam and Adam was created from clay. • Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honorable amongst you is the one who is most God fearing without doubt He knoweth all. • Section.2 People of God. • I will you to fear Allah and order you to yield and worship Him and initiate my Address with this virtuous word.
All previous obligation were quashed • Section.3 • Know that! Age of darkness and ignorance is quashed under my heels. • Now all signs of ignorance have been eliminated and made to halt • 1.Beware! Everything related to the people of ignorance is under my (these two) feet • 2. Behold! All practices of the days of ignorance like blood (revenges) illegally possessed property and other signs of days of ignorance (familial and inheritable pride) lie quashed under my heels till the Day of Judgment
Qasas and Diyat as Right • Every claim of privilege whether that of blood or property, is under my heels except that of the custody of the Ka’ba and supplying of water to the pilgrims • QatleAmad or murder would be avenged. Under the definition of QatleAmad would fall murders committed by a staff or a stone and the Diyat or compensation is hundred camels. (camel today ?) • Anyone who asks for more in compensation he would be included amongst the ignorant • Abolishing Riba • And every type of interest from this day here in is declared wiped out and prohibited, although you have a right to get back your principal sum, so that neither you nor the borrower is in deficit. Allah has decided against interest.
Qasas and Riba • 5. And all interest based on business are made to be evil – (And as far as Abbas bin Abdul Mutalib is concerned, his relation to interest is frozen) 6.And the blood revenges of the days of ignorance are extinguished and prohibited from now – (and with this I forgive the first blood revenge of my family that of Rabaita’s (Bin Al Haris bin Abdul Mutalib) child who was murdered by BanuHazil knowingly. Thus I as a pioneer volunteer to forgive the blood split during the days of ignorance
HalalHaram by Allah • 7.Ye people! • a) Without doubt ‘Nasai’ (tempering with months) envisages disbelief and Kufr and the disbelievers are lead astray due to this • For one month (due to personal interest or psychological interest) they proclaim a month as Halal & when the interest subsides, they cause the same month next year as Haram, so that the number of Haram months proclaimed by Allah are fulfilled superficially. Thus this is how they temper with Allah’s proclaimed Halal months and turn them into Haram and violate the sacred months
Halal and Haram by Allah • Now the time has completed its cycle and has come a square round from the day the universe started from its creation. • To Allah there are twelve months, four are sacred and inviolable, three of which follow consecutively: • (ZilQad, Zil Hajj and Muharram)) and one occurs singularly and separately (i.e. Rajab) which is also known as ShahrMazr; and which occurs between JamadiulSani and Shaban. • And the month may consist of 29 or of 30 days. Say if you have understood me. • To which the crowd affirmed in positive. • And then the Holy Prophet (SAW) exclaimed God as his witness.
Protection of Life, Property Honor c) Listen; Hajj / pilgrimage would remain associated with the month of Zil Hajj till the Day of Judgment Section.4 • People! Do you know on which day, of which month, of which place /city you are assembled. Every one replied: on sacred day, at sacred city and on sacred month. To which the Holy Prophet (SAW) assured verily your blood are sacred and inviolable on each other. • Section.5 • And your property and possession
Cont…. • Section.6 • And your honor • Section.7 • And your flesh (skin, body) including is sacred and inviolable on each other, until you appear before your Lord, as the sacred inviolability of this day of yours this month of yours, and this town of yours • Verily you will meet your Lord and you will be held answerable for your actions
No transgression of unjust treatment-Peaceful Social Life • Section.8 • Peaceful Social Life • Listen to me and you will attain real Life, but conditional upon the following: • Beware! Do not transgress upon each other • Observe! Do not misbehave or be unjust with each other • Understand it for sure!Do not commit misbehavior upon each other
Brotherhood and Social linkage Section.9 • People of God! Listen to me and understand verily every Muslim is the brother of the other Muslim and all the Muslims form one brotherhood Section.10 • Beware ! Every Muslim is honorable and sacred for the other Muslim Section.11 And every believer is sacred upon the other believer (like this day which also has a sanctity):
Social Code (i) His flesh is sacred upon the other; (ii) And backbiting, thus would amount to eating the flesh of the other; (iii) And one’s honor is sacred and cannot be violated; (iv) And one’s face is sacred for another and cannot be physically violated; (v) And to cause pain is forbidden; (vi) And this too is forbidden that in order to cause one pain, he is pushed; (vii) And this too is prohibited upon one Muslim to disregard the blood of another as Halal; (viii) Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives willingly.So do not wrong yourself; (And should I tell you who is a real Muslim?)
Definition of Muslim and Believer • Section.12 Muslim is one from whose hands and tongue the others are protected Section.13 And believer is in fact one from whom the life and property of others is secure Section.14 And migrant in essence is one who has excluded or divested himself from sins and wrong doings
Economic Codes-Repayment of Debts • Section.15 And ‘Mujahid’ is one who for the grace of God, fights and struggles within against his carnal desires • Section.16 It is incumbent upon a borrower that ‘All borrowed property’ must be returned • Section.17 All debts must be repaid
Socio-Economic Codes Section.18 All borrowed items must be returned. Section.19 Donations/Trusts must be returned. Section.20 Guarantor must be responsible for the guaranteed sum or surety
Personal Responsibility of all deeds Section.21 Observe! No one committing crime is responsible for it but himself Section.22 Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor the father is responsible for the crime of his child
Women Rights Section.23 Have the fear of God in respect of women (Piety) Section.24 I command you to treat women well (since they are your helpers) because they are like captives in your houses, possessing nothing for themselves and unable to manage their affairs themselves Section.25 Oh Ye People! Verily there are rights in favor of your women which are incumbent upon you and there are rights in favor of you which are incumbent upon them (As to what is incumbent upon them in your regard is)
Women Rights-Directions to them And it is incumbent upon women : • To abstain from impropriety, If they don’t then you have no right to treat them harshly • It is not permissible for a woman to give anything from the wealth of her husband to anyone but with his consent • Know that! A boy will be associated with the name of his father. (Identity to human)
Social Recognition to Every Human/Slaves Anyone who associates his name with anyone other than his father or if any slave associates himself to anyone other than his master, the fie of all humanity and angels would befall on him, and on the Day of Judgment no compensation would be accepted from him
Rights of Subordinates Section.26 • See that you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves; • And clothe them with clothes that you yourselves wear; • And if they commit a wrong deed which you cannot forgive them O people of God! Sell them off but: • Do not punish them harshly • And treat your slave-girls properly, and thus feed them and clothe them as yourself
Haqooq Allah and Haqooq Al-Ebad Section.27 Oh People! Verily I was ordained to fight and instill in people the message of Allah (La-illaha-ill-Allah) and once when they yield in actual succeeded in securing their life and properties.Rest be it Allah’s responsibility. Section.28 Do not equate anything or a partner with Allah. Section.29 And neither take away anyone’s life unjustly Section.30 Neither commit turpitude Section.31 Neither commit theft
Khatam e Nabuwat Section.32 O People! No prophet would be raised after me and no new Ummat (would be formed after) you. While referring no MessihAldajjal time and again He (SAW) said: There has been no prophet before me, who has not forewarned his people about Dajjal
Piety Section.33 • Behold! Worship your Lord; offer prayers five times a day; observe fast in the month of Ramzan; pay readily the zakat on your property and: perform pilgrimage to the House of God (ibadat) • and obey your rulers and surely you will be admitted to the paradise of your Lord
Obedience of Rulers and Fairness in Business • And obey your rulers and surely you will be admitted to the paradise of your Lord • Section.34 • Fear God and do not temper with the scales and weigh rightly and do not act seditious in your country
Obeying Hadood-u-Allah Section.35 And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of religion, for it is transgression of the (proper bounds of) religion that brought destruction to (many people before you) Section.36 Verily the Satan is disappointed at ever being worshipped in this land of yours, but if obedience in anything (short of worship is expected that is); he will be pleased in matters you may be disposed to think insignificant; so beware of him in your matters of religion
Inheritance/ Charity Section.37 • Allah has ordained every one his due share (of inheritance). • Hence there is no need (of special) testament / will for an heir thus no amount exceeding 1/3rd of total can be willed to anyone • Section.38 • Give charity for I know not perhaps you may not see me again. • Section.39 • Do not swear in the name of Allah (wrongly).For if anyone swears (wrongfully) in the name of Allah, his lie would be laid bare by Allah.
Shahadat (Evidence) • Section.39 • Do not swear in the name of Allah (wrongly).For if anyone swears (wrongfully) in the name of Allah, his lie would be laid bare by Allah
Importance of Knowledge- Knowledge as Human Right Section.40 (i) Oh People ! Gather whatever knowledge ye can before this knowledge is denied to you and narrowed to restriction (ii) One form of ending all sorts of knowledge is that those who know are taken away from amongst you
Social Relations Section.41 • There are three things whereby a believer’s heart remain purified from ill-will: • While performing with good-will in the way of Allah • For the good-will and benefaction of (Muslim) Rulers • While communicating and being among the company of Muslims, as their prayers ward off ill-will and surround him
Sources of Law Section.42 • Mark my words as I have transmitted every thing to you: • Verily I have left amongst you that which will never lead you astray, the Book of Allah, which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray. • And I have left amongst you that which will never lead you astray, the enlightened Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of His Prophet
Sources of Law- Research and Reference • The Book and Sunnah • Imam Malik, Mota Imam Malik) hadiz No.1395 • Musnad-e-Ahmed • The Book • Imam Muslim • The Book and Alh-e-Bayat • Imam Trimazi (Jam-e-Tirmazi) • Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal • Imam Tibrani
Faiths and Completion of Deen Obedience of Rulers
Obedience of Rulers/Khatm-e-Nabuwat Section.43 O People! Listen and obey, though a mangled Abyssinian slave is appointed your Amir, provided he executes (the ordinances of) the Book of Allah among you Section.44 Know that! Each Prophet’s invitation to his message has elapsed except mine for my message has been vaulted with the Almighty forever and is going to sustain for all times to come
Faiths and Akhrat • After this the Prophets would feel proud of the numbers but remember do not let me down with your bad / evil doings. I will await you at the Hauz-e-Kausar. • Beware! I will reach the Hauz-e-Kausar before you and will feel proud at your numbers in comparison to other nations.So do not become a source of my embarrassment • Behold! • I will help in emancipating some of the people (from Hell), yet some will part from me and when I would ask Allah that are they not my nation / followers? To which Allah would reply ‘ You do not know what evil they did after you
Akhrat Section.45 • Take heed not to go astray after me and strike one another’s necks Section.46 • And listen again! When you would meet your Lord, He surely will inquire about your deeds;
Akhrat • Thus the only one who would be given heart’s gratification, and before his eyes generous boons would befall, and the world itself would yield under his feet • But the one who endears this transitional world as permanent end, Allah will create chaos and division in his affairs, and that man would see and witness poverty and suffering in this world • And he would only receive his due share that is already fated upon him