Characteristics of the solar system

# Characteristics of the solar system

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## Characteristics of the solar system

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1. Characteristics of the solar system Characteristics of our Solar System

2. A solar family • Our solar system includes the sun, planets, and many smaller objects. • These bodies may be organized into smaller systems of their own. • System- A group of objects that, taken together, form a larger object. • Our solar system is a combination of many smaller systems.

3. Measuring interplanetary distances • One way we measure distance in space is by using astronomical units. • Astronomical unit (AU)-is the average distance between the Earth and the sun, or about 149,600,000 km (92,960,000 miles). • Light minute- Using the speed of light to calculate distance in space. In 1 minute, light travels nearly 18,000,000 km (11,180,000 miles). It takes light 8.3 minutes to reach the Earth. • Distance between stars is measured in light YEARS!!!

4. Planetary motion • Every object in our solar system moves according to strict physical laws. • Rotation- the spin of an object in space. • Period ofrotation- The amount of time it takes for an object to rotate once (day). • Orbit- Earth traveling around the sun in a path.

5. Planetary motion • Revolution- The motion of a body as it travels around another body in space. • Period ofrevolution- The amount of time it takes for a single trip around the sun (year). • Question? • How is the solar system a combination of smaller systems? • What is an AU, and how is it used? • What is the difference between rotation and revolution?

6. The Sun-a medium-sized star • Without the sun, life on Earth would be impossible. The sun provides energy for photosynthesis, provides heat, and drives weather. It produces its heat by a process called nuclear fusion. • Nuclearfusion- Two or more atoms joining together producing a lot of energy (heat and light). The core of the sun’s temperatures reaches 15,000,000°C (27,000,0320°F). • The sun is the dominant member of our solar system making up over 99% of the solar system’s mass.

7. Core- The center of the sun. This is where the light and heat is produced. Temperatures reach 15,000,000°C or 27,000,000°F. Radiative zone- The heat and light from the core move into this layer. The atoms in this zone are so tightly packed together that light can take million of years to pass through. Convection zone- Area where gases circulation convection current (hot gases rise from the interior, while cooler gases sink toward the interior). Photosphere- Area where gases get thick enough to see. This is the visible surface of the sun. Chromosphere- Thin region below the corona. Corona- This layer can only be seen during an eclipse. It is the atmosphere around the sun. Layers of the sun

8. The planets • Our solar system is divided into two main parts- the inner and outer solar system. They are separated by an asteroid belt. • Terrestrial planets (inner planets)- These are small, dense, and rocky. These consist of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. • Gasgiants- The outer planets. Very large planets that don’t have any known solid surfaces. Their atmospheres blend smoothly into denser layers at their interiors (except Pluto).

9. Asteroid belt

10. The terrestrial planets The Terrestrial Planets

11. Thin sodium cloud for an atmosphere Core thought to be iron As dense as Earth, even though it is smaller-core thought to be iron Gray in color Closest planet to the sun Slightly larger than Earth’s moon Covered with lots of meteor craters Has flat plains covered by a powdery soil Mercury

12. Mercury fast facts • Diameter: 4,878 km (3,031 miles) • Distance from Sun: 36 million miles (3.2 light minutes) • Moons: 0 • Period of rotation (day): 58 days, 16 hours • Period of revolution (year): 88 Earth Days • Surface temperature: -173°C to 427°C (-279.4°F to 800.6°F) • Gravity- 38% of Earth’s

13. 2nd planet from the sun Planet closest to Earth in distance, size, density, and gravitational pull Covered in clouds and haze made of sulfuric acid Venus’s surface is hidden from view Densest atmosphere of all of the planets. It is so heavy that a human on Venus’s surface would be crushed Rotates in opposite direction of other planets Sun rises in the west and sets in the east Orbits the Sun faster than it spins on its axis, so its day is longer than its year Is slightly less dense than Earth Atmosphere is 98% carbon dioxide Hottest planet Venus

14. Venus fast facts • Diameter: 12,104 km (7,521 miles) • Distance from Sun: 6.0 light minutes (67 million miles) • Moons: 0 • Period of rotation: 243 Earth days • Period of revolution: 225 Earth days • Surface temperature: 464°C (867°F) • Gravity: 91% of Earth’s

15. Third planet from the Sun This is the planet you live on!! Largest of the 4 terrestrial planets Continental landmasses Oceans Polar Ice Caps Only known planet to support life Dense metallic core of mostly iron and nickel Atmosphere is 78% Nitrogen & 21% Oxygen Only planet in the solar system with liquid water on its surface Only planet in the solar system with liquid water on its surface Earth

16. Earth fast facts • Diameter: 12,104 km (7,926 miles) • Distance from Sun: 8.3 light minutes (93 million miles) • Moons: 1 • Period of rotation: 24 hours • Period of revolution: 365.25 days • Survace temperature: -13°C to 38°C (8.6°F to 100°F) • Gravity:100%

17. 4th planet from the sun. Frequently called “The Red Planet” due to iron oxide, or rust, in its soil Surface is dusty and covered in boulders Has largest volcanoes (inactive) in the Solar System Appears to have dried up riverbeds Has a canyon called Valles Marineris- is 4 times deeper than the Grand Canyon Considered a cold planet Low air pressure-any liquid water would quickly boil away Ice is found at polar ice caps. It is thought that any liquid water Mars may have had could now be found frozen under the surface Mars

18. Mars fast facts • Diameter: 6,794 km (4,222 miles) • Distance from Sun: 12.7 light minutes (142 million miles) • Moons: 2 (Phobos & Deimos) • Period of rotation: 24 hours, 37 minutes • Period of revolution: 1 year, 322 days (687 Earth days) • Surface temperature: -123°C to 37°C (-189°F to 100°F) • Gravity: 38% of Earth’s

19. TheGas Giants

20. Jupiter • 5th planet from the sun • Largest planet • Is brown and beige striped • Has a thin dusty ring • Most famous feature is the Great Red Spot which is a huge rotating weather system driven by the planet’s internal thermal energy • Has 4 moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto • Io has active volcanoes • Europa is coated in ice

21. More than twice as massive as all the other planets in the Solar System put together Composed mainly of hydrogen and helium Clouds of water, methane, and ammonia make up Jupiter’s atmosphere No solid surface apart from central rocky core Jupiter’s interior temperature over 20,000oC (36,032°F) Gives out twice as much heat as it receives from the Sun due to heat energy moving from Jupiter's interior to the outer layers where it is radiated into space Jupiter

22. Jupiter fast facts • Diameter: 142,984 km (88,849 miles) • Distance from Sun: 43.3 light minutes (484 million miles) • Moons: 16 • Rings: Yes • Period of rotation: 9 hours 50 min (fastest spinner of all planets in the Solar System) • Period of revolution: 11 years 313 days • Temperature: -153°C (-243°F) • Gravity: 92 % of Earth’s

23. Sixth planet Rotates on a tilted axis Central rock icy core surrounded by liquid metallic hydrogen and liquid hydrogen Very strong icy winds blow in its atmosphere No solid surface Titan is largest moon Has 7 beautiful ring systems made of ice dust, and rock Composed mainly of hydrogen and helium Second largest planet Spins very fast Yellow & Brown Striped Saturn

24. Saturn fast facts • Diameter: 120,500 km (74,899 miles) • Distance from Sun: 1.3 light hours (888 million miles) • Moons: at least 18 • Rings: yes • Period of rotation: 10 hours, 30 minutes • Period of revolution: 29 years 155 days • Temperature: -185°C (-301°F) • Gravity: 92% of Earth’s

25. Seventh planet from the sun Nearly four times the size of the Earth Atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, and methane gas Atmosphere absorbs the red part of sunlight giving the planet its blue-green color Axis is tilted 98o, so north and south pole faces the Sun at regular intervals May have been knocked on its side by an asteroid Has a system of very dark, faint, narrow rings made of boulders Rocky metallic core Uranus

26. Uranus fast facts • Diameter: 51,120 km (31,764 miles) • Distance from Sun: 2.7 light hours (1,783 million miles) • Moons: 18 • Rings: yes • Period of rotation: 17 hours, 14 minutes • Period of revolution: 83 years 274 days • Temperature: -214°C (-353.2°F) • Gravity: 89% of Earth’s

27. 8th planet from the sun Spinning ocean of hot gases No solid surface Atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, and methane Bluish in color Has parallel cloud belts and high-altitude methane clouds Once had Great Dark Spot (storm) system, but it has since disappeared Gives out more energy than it receives from the Sun Has a ring system Winds reach speeds of 1,000 miles per hour Neptune

28. Neptune fast facts • Diameter: 49,539 km (30,776 miles) • Distance from Sun: 4.2 light hours (2,797 million miles) • Moons: 8 • Rings: yes • Period of rotation: 16 hours, 7 minutes • Period of revolution: 163 years, 263 days • Temperature: -225°C (-373°F) • Gravity: 112% of Earth’s

29. Astronomers have decided that Pluto is no longer a planet 9th “planet” from the Sun Neptune’s and Pluto’s orbits cross Probably covered with methane ice and may be pitted with craters Gray in color Low density Rotates on its side This atmosphere of gases freezes and thaws depending on distance from the Sun Tiny world of rock and ice Half the size of Mercury Moon, Cheron, is more than half of Pluto’s size Pluto

30. Pluto fast facts • Diameter: 2,285 km (1,420 miles) • Distance from Sun: 5.5 light hours (3,596 million miles) • Moons: 1 (Charon) • Rings: none • Period of rotation: 6 days, 10 hours • Period of revolution: 248 years • Temperature: -236°C (392.8°F) • Gravity: 7% of Earth’s