You Might Know More Than You Think You KnowUniversity of Wisconsin Professional and Personal RejuvenationFamily Living & Youth Development State Conference Valerie N. Adams-Bass, PhD Cornell Cooperative Extension November 15th, 2012
What Do You Know? • Group Activity • Separate into groups of 4-6 people • List and discuss attributes and observations about diverse audiences group members have experienced serving. • Report out key points
The Danger of a Single Story • http://blog.ted.com/2009/10/07/the_danger_of_a/ The danger of a single story: Chimamanda Adichie
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System’s Theory (EST) Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Chronosystem Spencer’s Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (PVEST) 1995 Vulnerability level Net Stress Reactive Coping Strategies Emergent Identities Life Stage Outcomes Cultural Ecological Perspectives
URI BROFENBRENNER, EST • Behavior is a joint function of person and environment • B = f(PE) • Transformation includes a key substitution • D = f(PE) • D stands for Development Bronfenbrenner, U. (1993).
URI BROFENBRENNER, EST • Microsystem – pattern of activities experienced by the developing person in a face-to-face setting that encourage more complex interaction with the immediate environment • Developmentally instigative characteristics of the physical environment
URI BROFENBRENNER, EST • Mesosystem – linkages and processes taking place between two or more settings containing the developing person • Special attention is focused on the synergistic effects created by developmentally instigative features of the setting • The influence of parents and peer groups
URI BROFENBRENNER, EST • Exosystem – linkages between multiple settings, one of which does not contain the developing person, but in which events occur that indirectly influence processes within the immediate setting in which the person lives • Example: the link between the home of a developing child and the parent’s workplace
URI BROFENBRENNER, EST • Macrosystem – the overarching pattern of micro- meso- and exosystems characteristic of a given culture, with particular reference to the patterns of social interchange that are embedded in such overarching systems • E.g. the Great Depression, urban education, War of Terror, War of Drugs
URI BROFENBRENNER, EST • Chronosystem–the dimension of time as it relates to an individual’s environments. The patterning of the environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances. • Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent’s death, or internal, such as the physiological
Ecological Systems Theory Image courtesy of http://mshmsh26.wordpress.com/
Ecological Systems Theory Applied model courtesy of http://www3.uakron.edu/schulze/610/lec_bronf_files/image003.jpg
PVEST • vulnerability level • protective factors those which help to shield youth from stressors • risk contributors those things which heighten vulnerability and stress reaction • net stress • Risks • Supports (i.e. family structure, neighborhood composition or friends)
PVEST • Reactive Coping Strategies • Adaptive • Maladaptive • Emergent Identities • Positive • Negative • Life Stage Outcomes • Productive • Unproductive
The Psychology of Diversity • Diversity • The presence of difference • Social diversity • Gender • Race • Disability • Religion • Social Class • Sexual orientation • Weight
Can’t We All Just Get Along? Idealistic Perspectives on Diversity The Melting Pot-Defines the United States as a society where everyone is welcome, social differences are understood, accepted and people with difference live harmoniously. caveat-alternative definitions associated with “melting pot”
Can’t We All Just Get Along? Idealistic Perspectives on Diversity Multiculturalism is a system of beliefs and values in which diversity plays a prominent role. Ideals which promote the recognition, appreciation, celebration and preservation of social difference. Blaine, 2007
Psychological Study of Diversity • Examines how diversity shape our own identities and behaviors • Examines how we shape the diversity of our social worlds • Confronts a wide ranges of diversity dimensions • Recognizes the social injustice often associated with dimensions of diversity • Recognizes differences, similarities and diversity within groups Blaine, 2007
Psychological Study of Diversity • Studying Psychological Diversity May cause: • Learning • Physical discomfort • Psychological dissonance • Attitude Adjustment • Self reflection & evaluation • Increase awareness and sensitivity to diverse perspectives and experiences
Looking at the Neighborhood • What is in the neighborhood? • Who is in the neighborhood? • Is there a central focal area? • How accessible is the neighborhood?
Asian Pacific Americans & Core Cultural Values • Collectivist orientation • Patience • Gentleness • Being Well-Mannered • Cooperation • Avoid confrontation: • Being accommodating, conciliatory, and cooperative • Blending with the group rather than distinguishing oneself for either good or bad behavior • Humility and Modesty • Withholding free expression of feelings • Suppression of conflict • Avoiding potentially divisive arguments and debates • Communicating indirectly • Refraining from openly challenging others’ perspectives • Nonverbal communication • Conformity to conventional behavior
Cultural Phenomenology • The meaning that individuals make of cultural values within their personal, familial, neighborhood, and societal interactions and contexts.
Who is a Latino/a? • Refers to people of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican and Central or South American descent • In the US - 35.3 Million • 58.5% Mexican • 9.6% Puerto Rican • 3.5% Cuban • 4.8 Central American • 3.8 South American
What is a Latino/a? • Latinos can be of any race • White • Black • Asian • Indian or Indigenous • Other
Core Latino Cultural Values • Personalismo • Interpersonal relationships, sensitivity • Respeto • Unquestioning deference to authority • Parenting • Latino parents (mothers) focus on the child’s public behavior
Core Latino Cultural Values • Familismo • Relational Orientation • I did it thanks to others rather than I did it on my own. • Family Orientation • Needs of family above needs of the individual • Simpatia • General tendency toward avoidance of personal conflict • Emphasis of positive behaviors in agreeable situations • De-emphasizing negative behaviors in conflictive circumstances
Core Latino Cultural Values • Informality • Less emphasis on formality • May lead to: • Late to appointments (and staying longer) • Little regard for routines, rules schedules • Establishing a relationship more quickly • Expectation of personal favors or rule bending
Core Latino Cultural Values • Spirituality • Fatalism • It happened because God wanted it that way • I deserved it for some wrongdoing, or as a humbling reminder of God over me.
Black(African-American) Experience Triple Quandary (Boykin, 1983; Boykin & Toms, 1985) Where Black culture is explained by • Mainstream Experience • shaped by Amer. society • mainstream success • Minority Experience • numerical political entity • shared w/ other groups • Cultural Experience • peculiar Black expression • reactionary & evolutionary
Racial, Ethnic and Cultural Transmission and Acquisition of (REC) Information, Relationships, Identities, & Styles (IRIS) racial ethnic cultural Bentley, Stevenson, & Adams 2009
Black(African-American) Experience Models of Racial Identity • Cross Theory of Racial Identity Development 1971, 1995 • Began with African Americans but has been applied to most ethnic groups
Black(African-American) Experience Models of Racial Identity • Cross, Parham, Helms, Spencer, Stevenson & others • BRID is ongoing- process of psychological Nigrescence (dev. of Black racial identity) is a lifelong process which begins with late adolescence/early-adulthood
White Racial Identity • Janet Helms’(1995) White Racial Identity Model: 1. Contact 2. Disintegration 3. Reintegration 4. Pseudo Independence 5. Immersion/Emersion 6. Autonomy
Using What You Know Using What You Have Learned • Ecological psychology models provide a framework for engaging diverse communities • Choose a model • Determine where your work fits in the model • Does your program meet the needs of the audience or community? • Is your program delivery culturally relevant? • Is your program design culturally relevant? • Make adjustments as necessary.
Using What You Know Using What You Have Learned • Group Activity • Separate into groups of 4-6 people • Choose a Extension Project your are planning to use or use. • Using what you know and have learned, map the project onto the Bronfenbrenner EST model. • Does your program meet the needs of the audience or community? • Is your program delivery culturally relevant? • Is your program design culturally relevant? • Make adjustments as necessary.
Thank You! Valerie N. Adams-Bass, PhD Cornell Cooperative Extension 4-H State Program Leader Bronfenbrenner Center for Translational Research 202C Beebe Hall Ithaca, NY 14852 607.255.7958 firstname.lastname@example.org