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  1. WELCOME TO EVERYBODY AshrafulAlam Associate Professor Department of Plant Pathology Patuakhali science and Technology University Dumki, Patuakhali-8602

  2. Course code: PLP 5003 Course Title: Plant Disease Management

  3. Integrated Disease Management • Integrated Disease Management (IDM) is a durable, environmentally and economically justifiable system in which damage caused by diseases is prevented through the use of natural factors which limit the population growth of these organism.

  4. According to Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) • A pest population management system that utilizes all suitable techniques in a compatible manner to reduce pest population and maintains them at levels below those causing economic injury

  5. Principles of pest management • Potentially harmful species will continue to exist at tolerable levels of abundance. • The ecosystem is the management unit. • Use of natural control is maximized. • Any control procedure may produce undesirable and unexpected consequences • An interdisciplinary system approach is essential.

  6. Why Pest Management? A. Collapse of control system • Use of DDT and BHC during the second world war began a new era of pest control. • New chemicals are effective and easy to use, Muscadomestica B. Patterns of crop protection • Smith (1969) has classified worldwide patterns into 5 phases.

  7. 1. Subsistence Phase: • The crop usually grown non-irrigated condition. • Yields are low. • The crop does not enter world market, consumed in the village. 2. Exploitation Phase: • Growers have observed spectacular kill of insects with the new synthetic insecticides.

  8. 3. Crisis Phase • More frequent applications of pesticides and higher doses are needed to obtain effective control. 4. Disaster phase: • The pesticide usages increase production costs . • The crop can no longer be grown and marketed prohibitory.

  9. 5. Integrated control phase • Insect control program are implemented. • The concept is one of optimizing control rather than maximizing it. C. Environmental contamination • The ubiquitous presence of pesticide residues in food, feeds and organisms occupying every part of the ecosystem has caused widespread concern among scientists and thoughtful citizens alike about contamination of the environment

  10. Concept of pest management • Understanding the agricultural ecosystem • Agro ecosystem can be more susceptible to pest damage and catastrophic outbreaks because of the lack of diversity in species of plants, species of insects, and the sudden alterations imposed by weather and man.

  11. B. Planning the agro ecosystem: • Crops should be grown in a manner to avoid or reduce difficult pest problems. C. Cost/benefit and benefit/risk • Cost/benefit: The amount of expenditure is commensurate with the amount of probable damage. • Benefit/risk: It provides a means for assessing the relevant economic benefit versus the risk of the pest

  12. D. Tolerance of pest damage • Economic injury level • The pest population level below which damage is tolerable and above is intolerable. • Needed to prevent a pest outbreak and to avert significant crop injury. • The level at which damage can no longer be tolerated and therefore the level at or before which it is desirable to initiate deliberate control activities.

  13. Figure Economic injury level:

  14. economic threshold level • The density at which control measures should be applied to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level. • The economic threshold always represent a pest density lower than that of the economic injury level.

  15. General Equilibrium Position • This the average population density of an pathogen population over long period of time. • The economic injury level may be at any level from well below to well above the general equilibrium position.

  16. Guideline for IDM programs • Analyze the pest status of each of the reputedly injurious organisms and establish economic thresholds for the real pests. • Devise scheme for lowering equilibrium position of key pests • Integrated pest management efforts manipulate the environment in order to reduce the key pest’s equilibrium position permanently to a level lower than the economic threshold.

  17. 3. During Emergency Situation, Sick Remedial Measures That Cause Minimum Ecological Disruption. 4. DEVISE MONITORING TECHNIQUES • Monitoring is essential to integrated pest management • Only through monitoring can the real need for control be known and the natural controls maximized.

  18. Present obstacles to practical use of IDM • Funding of research in IDM. • Farmer's’ attitude. • The viewpoint of the chemical industry. • Role of government • Acceptance of integrated control as the official pest control strategy of the country should be the first goal of crop protection researchers. • Without long term planning of research and application IDM programs are doomed to fail.

  19. Continued • Introduction of IDM demands a good extension service. • Acceptance of IDM as a serious control technology necessitates good public relations and education. • The role of the consumer should be exploited to the benefit of IDM. • Reliable production of good quality natural enemies should be guaranteed.

  20. Thank you All

  21. Pest Resurgence • Pest resurgence is observed when pests previously targeted and successfully controlled by pesticide recur, but in higher numbers than they did before. The reason for this is the removal of predators together with pests. They either die from the pesticide, or move away because their food source has disappeared.