National Crisis The Roaring 20s, Great Depression, New Deal, & WWII
The Roaring 20s Who, what, where, when, why and how?
Who Three Presidents: Harding was the one who died in the midst of scandal. Coolidge was the one who never talked. Hoover got all the blame for the Great Depression. Great authors: F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby, about a soldier who came home from World War I and got rich quick by selling bootleg liquor. The stars of the Harlem Renaissance were Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston.
What Isolationism: When World War I ended, the U.S. decided to have nothing more to do with Europe. U.S. foreign policy became isolationist. An era of mean-spiritedness: Small-town America did not like anyone who was not “100% American.” Folks did not like foreigners, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, or African Americans. The 1920s was the heyday of the Ku Klux Klan. Get Rich Quick: The wealthy speculated on the stock exchange. The New Woman: When women got the vote, they had more freedom. Women wore shorter skirts, smoked, and rode in cars.
When From 1920 through 1929.
Where In the United States.
Why 1. World War I was a horrible war. Soldiers were glad to be alive. 2. The Russian Revolution, led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, scared many Americans. 3. America was experiencing a decade of prosperity.
How How did the Roaring Twenties end? With a crash: In 1929, Wall Street crashed, the Great Depression began, and Americans suffered terribly.
National Crisis Politics of Postwar America
Postwar Trends WWI left much of the American public exhausted. Many Americans responded to the stressful conditions by becoming fearful of outsiders. A wave of nativism and a belief in isolationism was adopted.
Fear of Communism One perceived threat to American life was the spread of communism. The Red Scare panic in the U.S. began in 1919, after revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the czarist regime The Communist Party formed in the U.S. 70,000 radicals joined, and several dozen bombs were mailed to government and business leaders.
The Palmer Raids U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to action combat the “Red Scare.” He hunted down suspected communists and trampled on people’s civil rights. Foreign born radicals were deported and his raids failed to turn up evidence of revolutionary conspiracy.
Sacco & Vanzetti • Nativist attitude led to ruined reputations and wrecked lives. • Sacco & Vanzetti, two Italian immigrants, were arrested in 1920. • They were charged with robbery and murder.
Witnesses said the criminals appeared to be Italian. • The accused asserted their alibi and the evidence against them was circumstantial. • They were found guilty & sentenced to death.
Rise of KKK • Different groups of bigots used anti-communism as an excuse to harass any group unlike themselves. • The KKK was devoted to 100% Americanism and membership reached 4.5 million. • The Klan would eventually dominate state politics, but its criminal activity would lead to a decrease in power.
Labor Unrest Conflict between labor and management erupts after the war. In 1919, workers go on more than 3,000 strikes, but fear of communism turns the public against strikers. Labor union membership declines in the 1920s largely because of the movement’s association with Communist ideals. After the end of the First World War, most Americans wanted to return to normalcy.
However, fear of Communism and labor unrest seemed to threaten this desired stability. • As a result, attitudes toward immigrants and America’s role in the world began to change.
National Crisis The Roaring Twenties
National Crisis The Harding Presidency
The Harding Presidency • Harding vows to return the U.S. to the simpler days before the Progressive Era reforms. • Most of the world’s nations agree to disarm and sign the Kellogg-Briand Pact, but there is no way to enforce the pact. • The Harding administration raises taxes on imports and demand that Britain and France pay their war debts.
Harding promised the American people a return to normalcy. Because the need for unskilled labor deceased after the First World War, many Americans want to limit immigration. Congress sets up a quota system limiting immigration. Harding appoints some of his friends to the cabinet, but they use their offices to become wealthy. As a result of Harding’s poor judgment, his administration is plagued by scandals. Harding avoids disgrace but dies in office following a goodwill tour. To the end, his administration pursued an isolationist foreign policy and created immigration quota.
Roaring 20s Amendments • 18th Amendment: No booze • 19th Amendment: Women get to vote!
Unknown Harding Facts From the 1920s onward, Warren G. Harding has been the subject of many potentially damaging allegations. The Ku Klux Klan claims that Harding was a member, initiated in a secret White House ceremony, and some reputable historians believe these claims. Political opponents and other historians have claimed that Harding had African-American ancestors, and could therefore be considered our first African-American president.
The Business of America The automobile affects American life. The airplane industry takes off. Although many businesses expand during the 1920s, others suffer losses. The installment plan lures many American consumers into buying more goods than they can afford. Automobiles, electrical appliances, and other consumer goods flooded the market as America’s standards of living soared in the 1920s. Although not everyone took part in the general prosperity, many Americans embraced the present and enjoyed life.
Changes in politics and in the economy during the 1920s contributed to a variety of cultural developments. Heated debates over religion, dramatic shifts in the roles of women and African Americans, and the rapid expansion of the entertainment industry made the 1920s a period of tension and debate. The growth of cities results in new urban lifestyles that conflict with traditional values. Supporters of prohibition clash with those who ignore the law. Fundamentalists believe that the biblical account of creation is true.
Scopes Monkey Trial • Many liberal thinkers believe in the scientific theory of evolution. • The opposing values clash in the Scopes trial, which questions the roles of science and religion and public schools. • The shift to a predominately urban society brought about many changes during the 1920s. New lifestyles of city dwellers and new ideas in education challenged traditional values.
The Women of 1920s • The flapper represents a new ideal for young women. • A double standard requires women to abide by stricter standards of behavior than men. • Women assume new roles in the workplace. • Technological advances simplify household tasks. • Married women remain responsible for housework and child care. • The flapper symbolized the new, more independent, and sometimes flamboyant role of women in the 1920s. In spite of new opportunities in the workplace, women earned less than men and continued to be primarily responsible for the home and child care.
American Life in the 1920s Public high schools take on new roles in preparing students for the future. Expanded news coverage and the development of radio give Americans shared experiences. Sports heroes and movie stars inspire Americans. Writers, artists, and composers experiment with new styles. Much of the decade’s literature expresses a clash of values within society. The mass media, spectator sports, and movies created a shared popular culture in the 1920s. The art and literature of the decade reflected the disillusionment of many Americans.
Economic Prosperity • America emerged from World War I with a strong economy. • In the 1920s, America became the wealthiest country in the world. • Yet there was a wide gap between the rich and the poor.
Scopes Monkey Trial Activity • In 1925, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes was accused of violating the Butler Act. • This law made it illegal for a teacher in any state-supported public school or college to teach any theory of evolution because it contradicted the Bible’s account of man’s creation. • The trial of John Scopes gained worldwide media attention.
Tuesdays Jamal C. Jamal B. Kamilyah Brooklyn Allegra Aleia Camille Leigh Thursdays Jasmine Bre Ana Chris W. Taja Jordan Sydney Dynasty Kim Eli APUSH Study Groups
A National Crisis Coolidge Presidency
Was elected vice-president under Harding in 1920. After Harding’s death on August 2, 1923, he became president. First challenge was to clean corruption that occurred while Harding was president Calvin Coolidge
Keeping it Coolidge • Farmers in the western part of the country did not enjoy prosperity in the twenties, and they wanted government aid. • Congress approved the McNary-Haugen Farm Relief Bill, which proposed that the government buy surplus crops and sell them abroad to raise domestic agricultural prices. • Coolidge vetoes the bill in 1927 and 1928. • Believed the government had no business fixing prices.
Throughout his presidency he remained very conservative. • He opposed government intervention in private business, otherwise known as “laissez-faire.” • He decided not to run for another term as president in 1928. • He refused to run again because he believed there was no chance for government.
National Crisis The Harlem Renaissance
What was the Harlem Renaissance? • The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. • At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. • The Harlem Renaissance is unofficially recognized to have spanned from about 1919 until the early or mid 1930s. • Many of its ideas lived on much longer
The Harlem Renaissance Racial violence, economic discrimination, and natural disasters in the South cause many African Americans to move to Northern cities. Tensions resulting from the influx of African Americans erupt in race riots. African-American leaders propose different ways of responding to discrimination and violence. African-American writers explore and celebrate their heritage. African-American performers and musicians popularize their culture by appealing to a wide audience.
Jazz Age • Jazz features improvisation, where the musician makes up the music as they are playing. • It also has an off-beat rhythm called syncopation. • It grew out of the Blues and Ragtime. • Louis Armstrong, Satchmo, was the biggest performer of the time.
Marcus Garvey • Marcus Garvey came to the United States penniless in 1916. • In just eleven years, he built the first large Black Nationalist movement the country had seen. • Famed as a public speaker, idealized as a leader, and notorious to some for his separatist and inflammatory beliefs, Garvey's impact was undeniable.
Garveyism/Back to Africa Movement • Jamaican-born Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., was the founder of a political movement known as “Garveyism,” a “black pride” movement that encouraged African-American economic and political independence and the unity of all people of African descent.
At its height, in the years between the late teens and early 1920s, Garveyism was a massively popular movement, particularly among the poorest African Americans, who often felt overlooked and neglected by other black leaders of the day. The UNIA claimed to have millions of members, and Garvey himself addressed some 25,000 followers at Madison Square Garden in August 1920 for the opening of the First International Convention of the Negro Peoples of the World. • Garvey’s weekly newspaper, The Negro World, was widely read and featured contributions from such figures as Zora Neale Hurston and Arthur Schomburg.
But Garvey’s movement collapsed almost as quickly as it had risen. • In the early 1920s the federal government investigated his business holdings and charged him with mail fraud. • He was released from prison after two years, but was deported and died in obscurity. • The movement, however, enjoyed a renaissance with the resurgence of Black Nationalism in the 1960 and the popularity of such leaders as Malcolm X and the Black Panthers.
National Crisis America in the 20th Century: The Roaring Twenties