From the lecture • Meaning and Objectives of Education • Education Philosophies of Greeks • History of Education in Subcontinent and Pakistan • Education Policies of Pakistan • Education System of Pakistan
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Form
Al-Quran “Those who know cannot be like the ones who do not know. Of course, knowledge and ignorance are like light and darkness which can never be alike.”
Quid and education “There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend on the type of education we give to our children and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of Pakistan” Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah All Pakistan Education Conference November 30 December 02, 1947 Karachi
HISTORY • Education in Muslim Rules • Education Policy of the British • Education Policies after 1947
In1830 Macaulay was named as an inaugural member of a governing Supreme Council of India • He spent the next four years in India, where he devoted his efforts to the reform of the criminal code of the colony and the establishment of an educational system based upon the British model
What we need to chose is English
What we are made ! • "I have traveled across the length and breadth of India and I have not seen one person who is a beggar, who is a thief. Such wealth I have seen in this country, such high moral values, people of such calibre, that I do not think we would ever conquer this country, unless we break the very backbone of this nation, which is her spiritual and cultural heritage, and, therefore, I propose that we replace her old and ancient education system, her culture, for if the Indians think that all that is foreign and English is good and greater than their own, they will lose their self-esteem, their native self-culture and they will become what we want them, a truly dominated nation."
His Vision • "We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the Western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population,“
What he did • Gross Root System of Democracy • Education in English • Rule of Law
Education Policy of Macaulay • February 2, 1835 • Under the Macaulay system of education (approved by Governor-General Bentinck), • Persian was abolished as the court language and was substituted by English. • Printing of English books were made free and these were available at a relatively low price • There was curtailment in the fund for oriental learning, while English education received more fund. • The approved Macaulayian system was an attempt to focus on educating the upper strata of society through English and leaving it up to these people to promote vernacular languages and literature • Western learning would also seep through to the masses in this manner
Policies and Policy formation Education in Pakistan Since Independence
All Pakistan Education Conference 1947 • After freedom in 1947 a conference was arranged to structure the education system of Pakistan. Quaid-e-azam could not attend this due to illness, but he forwarded his message which later laid down the foundation for recommendations of education policy • His message contained four major aspect;1)Education system should suit the genius of Pakistan2) It should be consonant with our history and culture3) It should inculcate high sense of honor and integrity4) It should emphasis on science and technology
Cont… • The major recommendations of the conference were: • Education should be teamed with Islamic values • Free and compulsory education in Pakistan • Emphasis on science and technical education • Implementation: • This policy could not be implemented properly due to increased number of immigrants and other administrative problems of new born country • So more or less British colonial system was continued.
Report on Commission on National Education, 1959 • The commission on national education is a beacon for educational history of Pakistan because of its thorough study of Pakistani culture and need of the people.Its recommendations were as follows: • Character building. • Compulsory primary education. • Subject was bifurcated in core and additional subjects. • National language as medium of instruction • Focus on science and technical education
Cont… • Examination system should be combination of internal (25%) and external (75%) evaluation • Elimination of illiteracy • Religious education should be introduced in three stage i.e. compulsory at middles level, optional at secondary level and research at university level • Establishment of university grants commission • Three-year degree program • Implementation • Although it was an excellent policy, but it failed due to lack of proper planning and implementation. • The proposal of three-year degree program created unrest among students and parents and this was withdrawn
Education policy 1970 • Salient features: • Emphasis on ideological orientation • Emphasis on science and technology education. • Decentralization of educational administration. • Eradication of illiteracy. • Formation of national education corps • Implementation • This policy was not implemented due to change in government
Education Policy 1972-1980 • Salient features of this policy are. • Promotion of ideology of Pakistan • Personality development • Equality in education • Universal education • Curriculum based on socioeconomic needs of the society. • Integrated technical and science education. • Active participation of teacher, students and parents in educational affairs. • Nationalization of educational institutions. • Implementation: • This policy was a good approach towards betterment, but has many drawbacks due to which it cannot be achieved thoroughly e.g. universal basic education, shift towards agro-technical studies etc.
National educational policy, 1979 • In 1979 National Educational Conference was held for reviewing the education system and developed following aims:Fostering loyalty to Islam.Creation of concept of Muslim Ummah.Promotion of science and technical education.Equal opportunities.
Cont… • The following strategies were suggested to achieve above goals:1. Curriculum revision2. Merging madarsa and traditional education.3. Urdu as a medium of education.4. Effective participation of community in literacy programs.5. Linked scientific and technical education6. Separate instates for male and female7. Mosque schools • Implementation;This policy was not implemented properly and failed due to lack of planning and financial resources
National education Policy, 1992-2002 • This was announced in December 1992. the major aspect, aims and goals are as follows:1. Promotion of Islamic values through education.2. Improvement in women education.3. Diversification of general and technical education at secondary level.4. Demand oriented curriculum.5. Expended span of graduation and post graduation.6. Use of AV aids promoting private sector to participate in enhancement of literacy.Implementation:This policy could not be implemented due to change in political scenario of country.
National education policy 1998-2010 • Major objectives of this policy were as follows:1. To make the Quaranic principles and Islamic practices an integral part of education system.2. To achieve universal primary education.3. To meet the basic educational needs of every individual.4. To expand the basic education.5. To ensure equal opportunity of higher education.6. Laid emphasis on diversification.7. To make curriculum development a continuous process.8. To introduce in-service training programs for betterment of education.
Cont…. • Suggestions for achievement of above goals were: • Diversification of curriculum. • Expansion and emphasis on technical and science education. • Upgrading the quality of Deeni Madaras. • Teacher training programs both pre and in service.Introduction of idea of multiple text book. • Development of National Testing Services. • Introduction of comprehensive monitoring system
Education sector Reform-2005 • This originated from the policy of 1998-2010 and focuses on development of human resources. The major thrust areas of ESR are as follows:1. Promulgation of compulsory education.2. Free text books.3. Equal access to opportunities of learning.4. Improving all aspects in quality education.5. Introduction of new educational curricula.6. Development of training learning resources and materials.7. Offering incentives for private sector.8. Introduction of computer course at all levels.9. Strengthening of research in higher education.10. Grant for affiliation of madarsas.Now a days draft of new educational policy of education is inprocess of development.
Rural Pakistan • Over 50,000 villages • Population: 61% of total • Literacy: 44% (in women 29%) • Occupation: Agriculture (24% of GDP employs 48% of total work force) • Problems • Poor living standard • Poor education • Poor health • Lack of clean drinking water • Improper sanitation • Poor communication
Present Status • Population • Primary Education age group (5-9 +) children • - Total = 19.5 million • - Male = 10.1 million • - Female = 9.4 million • • Adult Literacy (10 + age group) • - Total = 113 million • - Male = 59 million • - Female = 54 million • • Early Childhood Education (3-4+ age group) • - Total = 7.5 million • - Male = 3.9 million • - Female = 3.6 million
Net Participation Rate • - Primary Level = 52% • - Middle Level = 18% • - Secondary Level = 11% • Adult Literacy Rate (10+ age group) • - Total = 53% • - Male = 65% • - Female = 40%
Labor Survey 2010 • Literacy Rate- 57.7 % • 69.5 % M • 45.2 % F • Urban 73 % • Rural 49% • Punjab 59.6 • Sindh 58.2% • KPK 52 % • Baluchistan 47 %
Definition “ Education is the most important factor which plays a leading role in humans development. It promotes a productive and informed citizenry and creates opportunities for the socially and economically underprivileged sections of society.”
Purpose of Education • Education is the most important instrument to enhance human capabilities and to achieve the desired objectives of socio and economic development • Education enables individuals to make informed choices, broaden their horizons and opportunities and to have a voice in public decision making. • At the macro level, education means strong and sustainable economic growth due to productive and skilled labor force • At the micro level, education is strongly correlated to higher income generating opportunities and a more informed and aware existence.
Introduction and Background • Today the illiterate population, 15 years and above, is larger than the population of the country at the time of independence, in 1947 • Poor infrastructure is also another obstacle facing Pakistan. Schools/colleges lack many basic facilities including: classrooms, toilets, blackboards, furniture and qualified teachers • In Pakistan, hardly 10 percent of the population complete twelve years of schooling due to high drop out rates; highest in South Asia • Study shows that at least 50 percent of the budget is spent on children who drop out of school before completing primary education cycle • Around 25 percent leave after 8 years of schooling and another 15 percent by Grade-10 • Wide spread teacher absenteeism is another issue which hinders these provision of education