The Middle East Gabriela Bermudez Diana Ghawi
Countries of the Middle East • Palestine (Palestinian Territories) • Lebanon • Syria • Jordan • Saudia Arabia • Iran • Iraq • Beirut • Bahrain • Oman • Qatar • Yemen • The United Arab Emirates • Turkey • Israel
Physical Coordinates • The Middle East is approximately: • Between 42 degrees N and 17 degrees N • Between 30 degrees E and 72 degrees E
Location In Comparison To . . . • Tropic of Cancer: passes through the Middle East • Tropic of Capricorn: approximately 47 degrees N • Equator: approximately 17 degrees N • South Pole: approximately 113.5 degrees N • North Pole: approximately 66.5 degrees S • The Middle East
Days and Nights • The days and the nights of the Middle East are relatively the same length. • The nights are only slightly longer, in the winter. • The days are only slightly longer in the summer. • The nights are much colder then the days no matter what the season is.
Time Zones •The entire Middle East spans over three time zones. •The westernmost of which is only two time zones away from the Prime Meridian. •The easternmost of which is eight time zones away from the International Date Line.
Rocks and Minerals • Sandstone • Sedimentary Rocks • Metamorphic Rocks • Ore Minerals, such as gold and silver
Plate Tectonics • Three major tectonic plates converge on the Middle East; the African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. • The boundaries between the tectonic plates make up the Azore-Gibaltrar Ridge, extending across North Africa, the Red Sea, and into Iran. • The Arabian Plate is moving northward into the Anatolian plate (Turkey) at the East Anatolian Fault, and the boundary between the Aegean and Anatolian plate in eastern Turkey is also seismically active.
Mountain Ranges Elburz (Alborz, Alburz) Mountains Kopet-Dag Range Zagros Mountains Hejaz Asir Taurus Mountains Caucasus Mountains Pontic Mountains (Dogukaradeniz Daglari) Libanus Mountain Range
Wind Patterns • Northeast Trade Winds • Horse Latitudes (Subtropical High)
Humidity • For the most part, the Middle East has a dry, arid environment, so there are very low levels of humidity for the majority of the region. • For the areas that are closer to bodies of water, the humidity levels are somewhat higher, although they are still very low.
Climate • Continental climate is marked by dry, sunny weather with low humidity. Have large annual temperature range (hot summer and cold winter). The Sahara Desert has the highest recorded temperature in a continental climate zone at 58°C. Most of the Middle East has a continental climate. • Marine climates have larger amounts of moisture and smaller temperature changes from summer to winter than continental climates. Seen in Middle Eastern countries bordering the Mediterranean sea and the Arabian Sea.
Carbon Dioxide Levels • The carbon dioxide levels of the major cities are much higher than the carbon emissions of the small towns and villages. • The Middle East has much lower Carbon Dioxide emissions than most other developed countries in the world, due to the fact that they do not use “modern” technology.
Mostly temperate but tropical in southern Saudi Arabia. The Middle East is mostly arid with hot, dry summers and cool winters.
Climate is Affected by Several Factors • Proximity to bodies of water Places that are closer to the sea experience moderate winter temperatures. Proximity to water affects precipitation also. • Altitude It strongly affects the temperature of an area.
Microclimates:Urban Microclimate in the Middle East • Cities tend to be warmer than surrounding suburbs and rural areas. • Photochemical smog increases temperature • Greater presence of condensation nuclei over urban areas. • Airflows are disturbed over urban areas.
Oceans of the Middle East Black Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Arabian Sea
Middle Eastern Severe Weather Disturbances • Droughts: a period of dry weather, which causes an extended shortage of water. • Sandstorms: a windstorm, usually occurring in a desert, that blows along great clouds of sand. • Earthquakes: a series of vibrations induced in the earth's crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating.
Severe Weather Disturbances • Mostly pre-reproductive population. • The largest percent of the population are younger than fifteen. • Middle Eastern population has been growing exponentially after 1915. • It will continue to grow increasingly in the future
Grassland Desert Temperate Forest