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Research Related Teaching

Research Related Teaching

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Research Related Teaching

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  1. Research Related Teaching Dr John Peters National Teaching Fellow, Fellow of the HEA, Principal Lecturer in Higher Education Deputy Head of Academic Practice and Development Associate Director (Research) Centre for Recording Achievement

  2. Learning Outcomes Colleagues will be able to: • Discuss definitions of research and scholarship • Analyse theorisations of the links between research and teaching • Discuss possible working relationships between research and teaching • Plan actions to carry forward research related teaching in their own work

  3. Plan • Lunch! • Define research and scholarship • Explore relationships between research and teaching • Case studies • Action planning

  4. What are research and scholarship?

  5. Rae definition of research ‘Research, for the purpose of the rae, is to be understood as original investigation undertaken in order to gain knowledge and understanding.’ • HEFCE, (2005) Guidance to Panels RAE 01/2005

  6. Rae definition of research 2 It includes: • Work of direct relevance to the needs of commerce and industry and to the public and voluntary sector • Scholarship* • The invention and generation of ideas, images, performances and artefacts including design, where these lead to new or substantially improved insights • The use of existing knowledge in experimental development to produce new or substantially improved materials, devices, products and processes, including design and construction.

  7. Rae definition of research 3 It excludes routine testing and routine analysis of materials, components and processes such as for the maintenance of national standards, as distinct from the development of new analytical techniques. It also excludes the development of teaching materials that do not embody original research. *Scholarship is defined as the creation, development and maintenance of the intellectual infrastructure of subjects and disciplines, in forms such as dictionaries, scholarly editions, catalogues and contributions to major research databases.

  8. Boyer, E. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered

  9. Boyer Scholarships 1 • Discovery • Investigative, Rae definition • Contributing to the stock of human knowledge • Mode 1 knowledge [Gibbons (1994)] • Integration • Synthesis, interpretive, making connections • Text book publication • Inter-disciplinarity

  10. Boyer’s Scholarships 2 • Application • Engagement or Service • Problem solving in the community • Mode 2 knowledge • Teaching • How to teach and promote learning • Situated in discipline practice

  11. Glassick, C. (1997) Scholarship Assessed • Clear Goals • Adequate preparation • Appropriate methods • Significant results • Effective communication • Reflective critique

  12. Revisit maps? • Case studies • Revisit again

  13. Linking research and teaching 1 • ‘At University scholarship is about not yet wholly solved problems and hence always in research mode … the teacher is then not there for the sake of the student, but both have their justification in the service of scholarship.’ Humbolt (1810) • ‘The element of partnership between teacher and taught in a common pursuit of knowledge and understanding should become the dominant element as the pupil matures and as the intellectual level of work done rises.’ Robins (1963)

  14. Linking research and teaching 2 • ‘We want all students to access the benefits exposure to teaching informed by research can bring. … An understanding of the research process – asking the right questions in the right way; conducting experiments; and collating and evaluating information - must be a key part of any undergraduate curriculum.’ Rammel (2006)

  15. HEFCE 2006/11 TQEF: funding arrangements • All students have a right to learn in an environment that provides the opportunity to fully develop their knowledge, understanding and skills. A learning environment informed by research provides learners with an understanding of knowledge creation (the research process and research methods) and its application (in economic, social, health and global contexts). It also stimulates key skills of critical analysis, respect for evidence and informed decision-making. We feel that a research-informed environment to stimulate the development of knowledge and skills is appropriate to all levels of student learning in higher education.

  16. HEFCE (2006) TQEF: funding arrangements We have identified four areas where institutions could seek to invest funds: • keeping the curriculum up-to-date and active, effectively supported by appropriate learning resources linked to recent research • enabling staff to engage with developments in their field and link to developments in their teaching • ensuring that courses are designed in ways that support the development of learning outcomes appropriate to the knowledge economy, including appropriate pedagogy – that is, students experiencing research, and developing research skills • embedding research-informed teaching in institutional structures, including human resources strategies and quality assurance processes.

  17. University of Worcester HEFCE research informed teaching allocation • 2006/7 - £ 68,687 • 2007/8 - £103,031 • 2008/9 - £103,031

  18. Jenkins, A. (2005) Strategies for linking teaching and research

  19. Healey, M. (2005) Linking research and teaching Participants Research tutored e.g. learning through writing Research based e.g. inquiry based learning Content Process Research led e.g. teaching content Research oriented e.g. teaching research process Audience

  20. Research led teaching? • People assume a linear cause-and-effect relationship between scholarship that moves from research, to publication, to application to teaching. It's as though the latter are not considered part of scholarship at all, but "grow out of it". Boyer contests: "The arrow of causality can, and frequently does, point in both directions. Theory surely leads to practice. But practice also leads to theory. Teaching, at its best, shapes both research and practice."

  21. Linking teaching and research Peters 2008? Participants Apprenticeship model e.g. co-researching the subject Learning ledmodel e.g. co-researching learning Content Process Discipline ledmodel e.g. publishing teaching content / text books Teaching led model e.g. study skills books or teaching case studies Audience

  22. Elkin, J. (2008) Research and Scholarship at UW: research • Informs and is informed by practice • Is accessible, purposeful, innovative, and of benefit to the University’s wider community • Promotes effective synergy between scholarship, research, teaching, knowledge transfer and enterprise • Interdisciplinary and multi-professional research excellence is a particular focus

  23. Elkin, J. (2008) Research and Scholarship at UW: context • A research and practice informed teaching environment benefits students and the wider, academic, professional and public good • High quality scholarly activity, research, professional activity and knowledge transfer underpin high quality learning and teaching and the development of the curriculum • All academic staff will be engaged in scholarship, advanced scholarship or research as part of their professional commitment and contract of employment • Staff need to maintain their up-to-date understanding of their discipline to deliver excellent higher education

  24. Six strategies for development, Jenkins, Healey & Zetter (2007) • Develop departmental and disciplinary understanding [of the terms] • Review current practice and culture • Develop a set of related curricula interventions [ e.g. a ‘research’ spine] • Develop staffing policies • Integrate policies and structures for teaching and research • Progress the link [keep asking questions!]

  25. Possible Themes • Policy on research and teaching • Access to research funding • Access to research communities • Curriculum design and Assessment • Student research • Research from teaching

  26. What can you, in your department do to promote research related teaching?

  27. References • Boyer, E. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered • Elton, L. (1986), ‘Research and Teaching: symbiosis or conflict’, Higher Education15, pp. 299 – 304. • Glassick, C. (1997) ‘Scholarship Assessed’ • Healey, M. (2005) ‘Linking research and teaching exploring disciplinary spaces and the role of inquiry-based learning’ in Barnett, R. Reshaping the University • HEFCE (2006) TQEF: funding arrangements 2006-07 to 2008-09 • Jenkins, A. (2005) ‘Strategies for linking teaching and research’ Academy Exchange, 2, 12-14 • Jenkins, A. Healey, M. & Zetter, R. (2007) Linking teaching and research in disciplines and departments