How the Writing Assessment is Scored • ANALYTIC Scoring • Four domain of writing are scored • Ideas • Organization • Style • Conventions • Papers receive a score of 1-5 in each domain. • Domains scores are weighted and added together to determine the raw score. • The raw score is converted to a scale score which is reported to the school/student.
Weighting of Domains Weighting means that the scores in some writing domains will be given more weight than others in determining the total score that a student receives.
Domain Score to Total Weighted Raw Score Conversion The following table indicates the total weighted raw scores for several domain score combinations. Two raters score each student paper, assigning a score of 1-5 in each of the four domains. The range of total weighted raw scores is 10 – 50. Introduction: Scoring Information
Raw Score to Scale Score Conversion Does Not Meet Meets the Standard Exceeds the Standard
Defining Persuasive Writing Persuasive Writing: Writing that has as its purpose convincing others to accept the writer’s position as valid, adopt a certain point of view, or take some action. Method: • Provides logical appeals, emotional appeals, facts, statistics, narrative anecdotes, humor, and/or the writer’s personal experiences and knowledge. Genres: Persuasive Writing
Objectives for Persuasive Writers • Shape the reader’s attitude on a topic the reader hasn’t thought much about • Reinforce existing attitudes to make readers feel more strongly • Reverse attitudes they want the reader to abandon • Persuade them to like something which they don’t like now • Convince them that a problem exists which they may not know about From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford
Awareness of the Persuasive Purpose Demonstrating Awareness of the Persuasive Purpose • Establishes a clear position on the issue • Provides relevant supporting ideas • Selects convincing details and examples appropriate to the audience assigned in the writing prompt • Uses specific rhetorical devices to support assertions • Addresses readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations
Reader Concerns in Persuasive Writing Reader Concerns are the expectations a reader brings to a piece of writing. General reader concerns: • Readers have a need for enough information to understand the writer’s purpose and message. • A reader should be able to pick up a paper without knowing the assigned prompt or assigned genre and be able to identify the writer’s purpose. • A reader should be able to tell if he/she is reading a report, an argument, or a narrative. Specific reader concerns: • Reader concerns will vary based on the task assigned in the writing topic. For persuasive writing, reader concerns often involve the other possible points of view on an issue.
Counter Argument • Anticipates and acknowledges opposing points of view • Responds to alternative points of view with respect, but at the same time shows that there is a better way • Supporting ideas develop both the writer’s and the reader’s point of view
Types of Arguments • Arguments from the heart • Appeal to readers emotions and feelings • Evoking anger, sympathy,,fear, happiness, envy. Love • Arguments based on values • Ask readers to live up to highest values by complaining they are not doing so. • Aligning your cause with values your readers hold • Arguments based on character • Readers tend to believe writers who seem honest and trustworthy • Sounding sincere, open-minded, knowledgeable • Referring to common experiences • Building common ground • Respecting readers • Arguments based on facts and reason • Offer factual evidence for every claim made • Writing with the skeptical reader in mind • Clarifying the issue for the reader From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford
Arguments from the Heart:Emotional Appeals • Embarrass readers into contributing to a good cause: “Change a child’s life for the price of a pizza.” • Make readers feel the impact of their gift: “Imagine the smile on that little child’s face.” (compassion) • Tell readers a moving story: “In a tiny village in Central America…” • Use guilt: “Because of this, you owe it to them.” • Use patriotism: “All good Americans do this…” • Use greed: “There’s a payoff in this for you too!” • Use pride/ego: “You’re the only one who could do this for us.” From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford
Arguments Based on Values • Typically compare what is and what ought to be. • A person or group does not live up to current values • Past values were better or nobler than current ones. • Future values can be better or worse than current ones. From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford
Arguments Based on Character • Establish authority by drawing on personal experience • Be honest about who you are and what you do or do not know • Acknowledge other perspectives or point of view on the topic • Presenting your ideas clearly and fairly will improve your credibility. • Making people laugh will make them like you. From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford
Arguments Based on Facts and Reason • Furnishing detailed evidence for every claim made in an argument • Facts make strong arguments • May employ the writer’s personal experiences From Everything’s an Argument by Andrea Lunsford
Combination Arguments • For the GHSWT, arguments don’t have to follow a single pattern. • Writers may use a combination of all types of arguments. • By making students aware of these four types, you provide them with: • More possibilities for generating supporting ideas during the GHSWT. • A deeper understanding of how the persuasive writer can interact with his/her audience.
Genre Considerations Students are expected to write a response that is appropriate to the assigned genre. Genre is thought of in terms of the purpose rather than the format of the response. When deciding whether a sample is appropriate to the assigned genre the extent to which the writer addresses the persuasive purpose of the prompt is considered, rather than simply the format in which it is written.
Genre A response to a persuasive topic may contain extensive factual information about an item to help the reader understand why it is desirable. Even if parts of the paper read like an information piece, the details about the item serve as support for the writers position. Likewise, the writer could include an extended narrative to illustrate what life is like without the item. The details in the story may reveal why the item is so important. Therefore the response does address the persuasive purpose in that the story contains compelling evidence to convince the reader that the item is important. Genre is thought of in terms of purpose rather than format.
Narrative Arguments • The narrative argument must clearly illustrate the writer’s position and support for that position • The narrative can be a real or imagined experience • The narrative must be persuasive • The narrative should be framed in a way that both sets the stage for the issue and at some point links the story to the writer’s position – the “so what.”
Persuasive Strategies • The reader must be able to understand the writer’s position, the writer’s evidence, and the writer’s line of reasoning (the link between the position and the evidence). • How does the writer gain reader support for his/her position? • Emphasizing benefits for the reader/audience • Address reader/audience concerns and perspectives • Present evidence • Show logical reasons • Respect and/or engage the reader
Writing Topics (Prompts) • Sample Writing Topic (Prompt) • Understanding the Writing Topic • Format of the Writing Task • The Writing Checklist
Sample Writing Topic (Prompt) Writing Situation Many public school systems across the country require students to wear uniforms. Some educators believe that wearing uniforms will help students concentrate more on their school work. On the other hand, some students argue that having to wear uniforms prevents them from expressing their individuality. Your principal is considering whether students at your school should wear uniforms. Directions for Writing Write a letter to your principal expressing your view on school uniforms. Provide convincing reasons and specific examples to support your position.
Fall 2008 GHSWT Writing Topic Writing Situation Many states are increasing the minimum driving age to prevent accidents involving teenage drivers. Some teenagers are worried because they depend on driving to get to work or school activities. Decide what you think about this issue. Directions for Writing Write a letter to your state representative that explains why the driving age in Georgia should be raised, lowered, or remain the same. Support your position with specific examples and details.
Fall 2007 GHSWT Writing Topic Writing Situation Many students do not think the subjects they study in high school prepare them for the real world they will face after graduation. The principal at your school is asking students for their opinions about new courses that could be offered to prepare students for life after high school. What new course do you think should be offered? Directions for Writing Write a letter to convince the principal that your new course should be offered. Be sure to explain why your new course is needed, using specific examples and details.
Understanding the Writing Topic:The Writing Situation • All GHSWT writing topics contain two sections – the Writing Situation and the Directions for Writing. • The Writing Situation gives the background for the writing assignment. • The first sentence of the Writing Situation introduces the general topic. • The remaining sentences in the Writing Situation help the writers think about different aspects of the topic, realize that they do know enough about the topic to write and then to focus their individual responses.
Understanding the Writing Topic:The Directions for Writing • The Directions for Writing tell what the students are supposed to do for the writing assessment. • The first sentence of the Directions for Writing provides the students with a format for writing and gives the students an identifiable audience. • The final sentence of the Directions for Writing reminds the students to give many specific examples and ideas to elaborate their supporting ideas.
Format of the Writing Task • The Directions for Writing specifies a format - such as a letter, speech, or a newspaper article - to give students a writing task that is similar to real world writing situations. • Regardless of the specified format, students should have a clear controlling idea that is well developed with relevant details and examples. • Adhering to the conventions of a particular format is not evaluated on the state writing assessment. • For example, if students are asked to write a letter, they will not be penalized if they fail to address the letter to the person named in the prompt or sign their name at the end of the letter. • Likewise, it is not necessary for students to write their responses in two columns to simulate a newspaper article. • The students’ writing ability is being evaluated, not their knowledge of formatting letters, speeches, or newspaper articles.
The State Prompt Formula Writing Situation (“A” Part) One sentence introducing the general topic. One to two sentences providing some broader context. Directions for Writing (“B” Part) The actual question—asking the student to communicate clearly about specific aspects of the general topic (1-2 sentences). General Topic Context for the Topic Format, purpose, audience, & task
2008 Persuasive Writing Topic Writing Situation (“a” part) Many states are increasing the minimum driving age to prevent accidents involving teenage drivers. Some teenagers are worried because they depend on driving to get to work or school activities. Decide what you think about the issue. Directions for Writing (“b” part) Write a letter to your state representative that explains why the driving age in Georgia should be raised, lowered, or remain the same. Support your position with specific examples and details. General Topic Context for Topic Writer’s Task: Format, Purpose, Audience
SAT Writing General Topic Excerpt (“A” Part) Winning does not require people to be against someone else; people can reach their goals through cooperation just as well as they can through competition. Winning is not always the result of selfish individualism. People achieve happiness by cooperating with others to increase the happiness of all, rather than by winning at others' expense. Ours is not a world in which the price of one person's happiness is someone else's unhappiness. Assignment (“B” Part) When some people win, must others lose, or are there situations in which everyone wins? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations. Context for the Topic Writer’s task
Release of Writing Topics • The writing topics for Grades 5, 8, and 11 will be released each year after the writing assessment is administered. • The released writing topics for each grade will be posted on the GaDOE website. • Go to: http://www.gadoe.org/ci_testing.aspx • Click on “Writing Assessments” • Scroll to the bottom of the page and then click on “Grade 11 Writing Assessment” • Check the Grade 11 Resources Box • Teachers may use these released topics to help prepare students for future writing assessments.
Persuasive Writing Topics • Each of the Georgia Writing Assessments in grades 3, 5, 8, and 11 assess persuasive writing. • Please see the GaDOE website and the Assessment and Instructional Guide for prompts from other grade levels. • For struggling grade eleven writers, some of the grade 5 and grade 8 persuasive prompts may be appropriate.
Reading and Understanding the Writing Topic • Students need to know in advance what the GHSWT writing topics look like and where to find the assigned task. • Use the released writing topics as a large group to discuss and to practice determining what the persuasive purpose of the topic is. • Teach students how to find the cues given in each GHSWT writing topic.
Georgia High School Writing Test 2009 Writing Situation Over the past 25 years, the U.S. government has spent billions of dollars on space exploration. Some citizens believe exploring outer space is an important use of government money. Others believe the money could be better spent helping people here in Earth. Directions for Writing Write a letter to convince your U.S. Congressional representative to either continue funding space exploration or to redirect those funds to other projects. Include specific details and examples to support your position. General Topic Context for the Topic Writer’s task
Georgia High School Writing Test 2010 Writing Situation Humans have always been curious about time travel. A local science agency has selected you to travel into the past. Think about a time period in the past that you’d like to visit. Directions for Writing Write a letter the head of the agency explaining what time period you’d like to visit and why. Provide specific details and examples to justify your decision. General Topic Context for the Topic Writer’s task
The Writing Checklist StudentWriting Checklist for Persuasive Writing Prepare Yourself to Write • Read the Writing Situation and Directions for Writing carefully. • Brainstorm for ideas. • Consider how to address your audience. • Decide what ideas to include and how to organize them. • Write only in English. Make Your Paper Meaningful • Use your knowledge and/or personal experiences that are related to the topic. • Express a clear point of view. • Fully support your position with specific details, examples, and convincing reasons. • Include an appeal to logic and/or emotions. • Organize your ideas in a clear and logical order. • Write a persuasive paper and stay on topic. Make Your Paper Interesting to Read • Use examples and details that would be convincing to your audience. • Use appropriate voice that shows your interest in the topic. • Use precise, descriptive, vivid words. • Vary the type, structure, and length of your sentences. • Use effective transitions. Edit and Revise Your Paper • Consider rearranging your ideas and changing words to make your paper better. • Add additional information or details to make your paper complete. • Proofread your paper for usage, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling.
Rubrics Overview of Score Points 1 – 5
Using the GHSWT Scoring Rubric:The Rubric Top to Bottom Domain Title and Overview Domain Components Level of Competence Score Point Descriptions (1-5)
Overview of Score Points 1-5Five Levels of Competence Score: 1 Lack of Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 2 Minimal Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 3 Sufficient Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 4 Consistent Control (of the elements of the domain) Score: 5 Full Command (of the elements of the domain) GREEN = The degree to which the writer demonstrates control of the components.
Ideas Organization Style Conventions These are the domains assessed in several other important writing contexts. For example… Domains Assessed in the GHSWT
Ideas: The degree to which the writer develops a point of view on the issue and demonstrates critical thinking, using clearly appropriate examples, reasons, and other evidence to support the position Organization: The degree to which the response is well organized and clearly focused, demonstrating clear coherence and smooth progression of ideas Style: The degree to which the response exhibits skillful use of language, using a varied, accurate, and apt vocabulary and demonstrates meaningful variety in sentence structure Conventions: The degree to which the response is free of most errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics For the scoring rubrics, visit http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/sat/about/sat/essay_scoring.html) What’s being assessed?SAT Writing
“The score reflects the quality of the essay as a whole—its content (ideas and how they’re organized), its style, its mechanics (conventions).” For question-specific scoring guides, visit www.collegeboard.com. What’s being assessed?AP Exam in Lit./Comp.
Unity: a central idea, and evidence organized around the central idea. Evidence/ Development (Ideas) Coherence (Ideas and Organization) Presentation and Design (Conventions) Audience Awareness (Style) Distinction (Style) For more info, visit http://web.english.uga.edu. What’s being assessed?First-Year Comp. at UGA…slightly different names; same traits
The Components of Ideas Ideas: The degree to which the writer establishes a controlling idea and elaborates the main points with examples, illustrations, facts, or details that are appropriate to the assigned genre.
Illustrative Papers Low-Middle-High scores in Ideas These papers are designed to give you a general sense of the differences in development between low, middle, and high score points in Ideas. You will see these differences in greater depth when you study the models for score points 1-5 in Ideas.
Low-Middle-High scores in Ideas Low I would like to visit the 60’s and see how it was like. I would like to see how the man and women dress. I would like to see how the old houses and streets. I would like to see the old 60’s car. I would like to see the old Allstars basketball team. I would see a old football team.
Low-Middle-High scores in Ideas Middle Traveling back in time never crossed my mind until I was given the opportunity by the science agency. Since this chance comes only once, I would like to visit the 1950’s. There is so much information I can find out about my history, like why African Americans could not vote, why there was segregated schools, and the marches that occurred to prove points. This would help me know more about Black History. First, the fact that African Americans were not able to vote was wrong and unfair. Blacks were just as capable of voting just like whites. Once the law that African American men could vote was passed, people who were prejudiced or racist still made it hard for them. It was a challenge that African Americans in the South had to fight and I think seeing what they went through would help me appreciate things a little more. Next, education is something that is very important. What I have learned was that parents had to fight for their child’s education and things they needed like new schoolbooks instead of the old and brittle ones that they got from the Caucasian schools. Even though I have already learned some things, experiencing the difficulties of learning in that type of environment would definitely prove to me that life is a little bit better than it used to be. Finally, since I’ve never really taken extreme actions in something I truly believe in, participating in a march would be like a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Marching next to some of the most powerful and influencing people like Martin Luther King Jr. would be great. Even though at times the marches became dangerous and violent, doing something to help you and your people later on in life is all that matters. And standing up for something that mattered to me is important. In conclusion going back in time to the 1950’s is well worth it. I can learn many more things about the struggles and achievements of my people. I want to be there to view the happy and sad times. The times that schools were no longer segregated, the times both African American men and women were able to vote and the time we marched for something we truly believed in.