Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Behaviors: Part 1 Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) & Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) Development January 2008 Revised July 2010 Bette Greer Betsy Stanwood
What Should We All Know About Behavior? • There is a significant learned component in most forms of challenging behavior and what has been learned may be “unlearned”. • Challenging behavior almost always means something. • Understanding the behavior helps us to change it. Challenging behavior and autism Making Sense-making progress Philip Whitaker
Why? When? Would a School Team Consider Starting the FBA/BIP Process? Required: • To access certain system supports (i.e. Lake Forest Academy) • To seek entitlement for special education services • To meet IDEA process requirements (i.e. Manifestation Determination, Change in Services, Functional Behavioral Assessments, and Behavioral Intervention Plans) Recommended: • To assess & address significant behavior problems in a school setting • Student not motivated to participate in school activities • Student does not complete tasks • Student has poor peer relationships • Student has poor self esteem • Student has heightened levels of anxiety • Student does not comply to adult requests
What is a“Functional Behavioral Assessment”? A method of identifying the social, affective, and environmental factors that reliably predictand maintain behaviors that interfere with learning. Its purpose is to determine a target behavior that will be the focus of intervention on a Behavioral Intervention Plan.
1. Collect Data 2. Analyze Data • Antecedent 3.Identify Function of Target Behavior • Behavior • Consequence 4. Develop Hypothesis • Target Behavior Steps in the FBA Process
Date Time 1. Collect Data FREQUENCY DATA SHEET Student: ______________ Teacher: _________________ Behavior of Concern Exhibited Location/Activity Presence of Others, Peers, Adult(Specify) Adult Response/ Action Other Factors EXAMPLES -After fire drill -Day after return from holiday -No medications 6/14/04 EXAMPLES: -Students (all class) -TA (CM) -T (BS) 10:30 to 12:25 EXAMPLES: -Refuses to work -Talks out -Out of seat Regular class/ Math lesson TA walks to student prompts verbally “Get Busy” NHCS PBIS 3 Tool
2. Analyze Data • Identify antecedent or factors noted prior to the behavior • Summarize behavior, noting level of intensity and specific patterns, using information from Frequency Data Sheet (NHCS PBIS 3) • Identify consequences or events that follow the behavior • Define the target behavior (NHCS PBIS 4)
Considerations when Analyzing the Data • Are there patterns? • Are there specific locations,times, subjects or people? (Triggers) • Are there physical signals of impending problems? • Are there home concerns? Divorce? Death? Illness? Transition? • How often do the behaviors occur? (frequency) • How long do behaviors last? (duration) • How severe or damaging are the behaviors? (intensity) • Can the student continue with their school day when behavioral episode is over?
Consider that a Target Behavior is . . . • a specific behavior that needs to be replaced OR • a cluster or combination • of behaviors that are • related to one another • and are a part of the • target behavior
3. Identify Function Target Behavior Attention? Power? Escape/Avoidance? Self Stimulation Self Stimulation?
Identifying Functions To obtain something pleasant at a sensory level = Self-Stimulation The function and purpose of the behavior can be… • To tell us that they want more of something pleasant = Power and Control or Attention • To tell us that they want to get away from something that they consider unpleasant = Escape and Avoidance
Functions of Behavior Target Behavior Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Escape/ Avoidance Self Stimulation Attention Power • For: • Control • Intimidation • Vengeance • From: • Peers • Staff • Preferred • Adult • Of: • Person • Activity • Classroom • To reduce: • Anxiety • Fear
So, It Is Important To Determine the “REAL” function of the behavior and the “REAL” message being communicated.
Once you establish the function of a behavior, you need to determine how the ADULT might be contributing to the problem. Just how does she think I contribute to THEIR behavior? Do you mean that I have to change so the student will change?
Do you contribute? Are you guilty of saying any of these? “I tried that visual stuff and she still won’t do her work!” “She just sits there and waits for me to tell her what to do.” “I wrote it on the board" “He knows what he is doing and he is just being manipulative.” “He understands, I had him repeat my directions.” “He understands, he did the work yesterday.”
4. Develop the Hypothesis A hypothesis statement summarizes the team’s analysis of the behavior. It is a statement ofwhatthe student is doing and why the student is doing it as framed in the FBA tool. When Johnnie is in small group instruction and/or gym and does not get his way he typically responds by shoving and/or using threatening language to gain attention.
Other Considerations Related to the FBA Process • Use the alternate autism FBA when students have a diagnosis of autism/autism spectrum disorder • Use the alternate autism FBA when students • demonstrate social and communication deficits • demonstrate a strong visual learning channel • demonstrate sensory integration deficits Functional Behavioral Assessment for Students with Autism
FBA Pitfalls • Failure to use FBA process proactively • Failure to collect data efficiently • Failure to summarize data for analysis • Failure to analyze data efficiently • Failure to see or look for patterns • Failure to utilize the process to identify the function of the behavior
Accessing the Tools All tools related to the FBA/BIP process can be located at New Hanover County Schools, Special Education & Related Services Manual. Look in the Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Chapter. • Frequency Data Sheet (PBIS 3) • Analysis of Data (PBIS 4) • FBA/BIP • Autism FBA
The FBA Process Collect Data Analyze Data Identify Function Develop Hypothesis Develop Hypothesis
What is a “Behavioral Intervention Plan”? A plangenerated by a team based on the information gathered from a FBA. This tool is a “lesson plan” for teaching replacement behaviors.
“Recipe” for a Successful Behavioral Intervention Plan REWARDS CONSEQUENCES TEACHING PLAN
2 Part Focus of a BIP Replacement /Desired Behavior Rewards Proactive Focus Teaching Plan Documentation Consequences Reactive Focus Crisis Plan Must be specific in describing the behaviors. Can everyone see them?
BIP Instructional Considerations “I want Joe to follow directions in class.” How? Who? Documentation? Consequences? When? Rewards?
Replacement/Desired Behaviors ”I want Joe to follow directions for task completion in class.” Complete entire task Complete ½ sheet Complete 1 problem Work with peer Progressive Steps must be taught to reach desired behaviors. Request help from teacher
Behavior Management and Reinforcement ALL students need strong reinforcement to change their behavior. Reinforcement is equally as important to get them to comply to your request when they perceive the task too difficult or repetitive. IN OTHER WORDS, They have to decide if it is worth doing X to get Y. Just because an adult tells them to do something or threatens to “drop their boat” isn’t going to alter the behavior if there isn’t a strong reinforcer.
Avoid These Pitfalls When Using Reinforcement Don’t forget to teach the behavior you are trying to reinforce, you will need to provide instruction and reinforce close approximations of the goal behavior. Be sure to tell the student what they CAN DO to earn a reinforcer NOT what they can’t do. Make sure you are reinforcing what you truly want to reinforce. For example, make sure that the bulk of the attention paid to children is for desired behaviors rather than undesired behaviors.
Keys for Effective Rewards and Consequences • Get information regarding the student’s interests and motivators • Get student’s “buy in” regarding rewards system – give at least 5 reward choices • Make sure your consequence doesn’t really reward the student • Utilize a variety of consequences that offer a more positive outcome such as restitution
BIP Pitfalls • Failure to use the tools to guide the decision making • Failure to include a teaching plan • Failure to identify reinforcers that are effective with the child (inconvenient for adults) • Failure to review the BIP
Additional Pitfalls Don’t Get Caught “Failing” to . . . • Evaluate the plan’s effectiveness • after collecting data • Agree on the number of weeks to • implement the plan • Schedule a date to review and revise the plan • Explain all aspects of BIP to student and • team members - Document BIP as an accommodation in IEP (if the student has an IEP)
The BIP Process Organize and Summarize Analyze Intervention and Evaluation
Case Study #1 Sponge Bob • Repeating kindergartner • Diagnosis of ADHD – Inconsistently taking Ritalin • Becomes agitated when presented with an academic task, usually math • Becomes agitated when work is marked incorrect • Refuses to comply when redirected to correct his work • Further redirection increases his level of agitation, possibly to the point of outward aggressive behavior (such as, crumpling paper, throwing items, destroying property) OR presents non-compliant, shut-down behavior, refusing to follow directions • Following the shut-down behavior, student may exhibit aggressive behavior towards peers (such as, kicking or shoving a student)
Case Study #1 Sponge Bob • When debriefing with the student he will refuse to accept ownership for his behavior and will blame peers as having prompted the behavior (i.e., perceived students making fun of him, staring at him, talking about him) • Analysis of observational data indicates behavior occurs typically during math or in the afternoon as well as when items have been taken from the student • Interventions to date have included bouncing to the IBS class - 3 episodes lasting approximately 1.5 hours • Parent input indicates aggressive episodes have increased at home even with medication • Student’s strengths include articulating his feelings, complying when given one on one support. He also has artistic abilities.
FBA Information Activity #1: In teams, complete FBA Activity #1(a): In teams, complete FBA hypothesis statement. Presenter will direct which activity DISCUSSION AND SHARE
Sponge Bob FBA Hypothesis When Bob is given an assignment(most often with math) and is asked to make corrections or complete an assignment he typically responds by refusing to complete task or shuts down to gain escape and avoidance of the task.
BIP Development Activity #2: In teams, brainstorm a list of appropriate replacement/desired behaviors for Sponge Bob. Activity #3: In teams, brainstorm a list of possible rewards for Sponge Bob. DISCUSSION AND SHARE In Session 2 we will work with Teaching Strategies - The How!
Teaching Plan Sponge Bob New Hanover County Schools Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) * “Reinforcers are carefully tailored to the child’s strengths and interests. This is an important factor in developing successful BIPs. The one size fits all approach to reinforcers is not nearly as effective as the individualized approach.”Bateman & Golly
BIP Crisis Plan (Mild, Moderate, Severe) Activity #4: In teams, brainstorm descriptions of MILD, MODERATE, AND SEVERE behaviors for Sponge Bob. DISCUSSION AND SHARE In Session 2 we will work with Teaching Strategies - The How!
Crisis Plan Sponge Bob New Hanover County Schools Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)
Case Study #2 Wile E. Coyote • 5th Grader • Diagnosis of ADHD and Bi Polar • Takes medication routinely • Becomes agitated when asked to transition from preferred activity • Has poor self-esteem and thinks he must “know” all the answers • Often will not attempt a task he is unsure of or will begin as if he knows what he is doing and puts any answer to fill in the blanks • Will not ask for help
Case Study #2 Wile E. Coyote • Analysis of observational data indicates behavior occurs typically when new skills are introduced • Interventions to date have included prior notice of instructional topics for pre-teaching at home • Parent input indicates frustration at home when he cannot grasp concepts or indicate when he doesn’t know or comprehend info • Student’s strengths include vocabulary and significant factual/rote information
FBA Information Activity #1: In teams, complete AU-FBA Activity #1(a): In teams, complete FBA hypothesis statement. Presenter will direct which activity DISCUSSION AND SHARE
Wile E. Coyote FBA Hypothesis When Wile is in an educational setting and is asked to transition when he isn’t finished he typically responds by presenting verbal refusal or destroying materials to gain escape and avoidance of the adult request.
BIP Development Activity #2: In teams, brainstorm a list of appropriate replacement/desired behaviors for Wile E. Coyote. Activity #3: In teams, brainstorm a list of possible rewards for Wile E. Coyote. DISCUSSION AND SHARE In Session 2 we will work with Teaching Strategies - The How!
Teaching Plan Wile E. Coyote New Hanover County Schools Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) * “Reinforcers are carefully tailored to the child’s strengths and interests. This is an important factor in developing successful BIPs. The one size fits all approach to reinforcers is not nearly as effective as the individualized approach.”Bateman & Golly
BIP Crisis Plan (Mild, Moderate, Severe) Activity #4: In teams, brainstorm descriptions of MILD, MODERATE, AND SEVERE behaviors for Wile E. Coyote. DISCUSSION AND SHARE In Session 2 we will work with Teaching Strategies - The How!