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Job Design, Work, and Motivation

Job Design, Work, and Motivation

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Job Design, Work, and Motivation

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  1. Chapter 6 Job Design, Work, and Motivation

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the relationship between job design and quality of work life • Identify the key elements linking job design and performance • Define the term job analysis • Compare the job design concepts of range and depth

  3. Learning Objectives • Describe what perceived job content means • Identify the different types of job performance outcomes • Compare job rotation with job enlargement • Discuss several approaches to job enrichment

  4. The jobs that people perform in organizations are the building blocks of all organization structures A major contributor to effective job performance is job design Introduction

  5. Job Design • The process by which individual job tasks and authority are decided • The term “job design” applies to any and all managerial efforts to create jobs, whether initially or subsequently • The well-being of organizations and people relates to how well jobs are designed • Designing jobs has gone beyond determining the most efficient way to perform tasks

  6. Quality of Work Life • Quality of work life (QWL) refers to a philosophy of management that… • Enhances the dignity of all workers • Introduces changes in an organization’s culture • Improves the physical and emotional well-being of employees • QWL embodies the theories and ideas of • The human relations movement of the 1950s • Job enrichment efforts of the 60s and 70s

  7. Quality of Work Life Employeeturnover Stress Sick leaveusage Indicatorsof QWL Accidentrates Numberof grievances filed

  8. Quality of Work Life and Job Design • Job design attempts to… • Identify the most important needs of employees and the organization • Remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs • Improve organizational effectiveness

  9. Conceptual Model of Job Design

  10. Personal Behavior Objective Job Performance Outcomes Job Satisfaction Intrinsic and Extrinsic

  11. Job Analysis Purpose of Job Analysis Provide an objective description of the job Job analysts gather information about… Job content Job requirements Job context

  12. Job Analysis Mechanistic Motivational Job AnalysisMethods Perceptual-motor Biological

  13. Job Content • The activities required of the job • Descriptions vary from general statements to detailed notations of every hand and body motion required

  14. Job Content • Functional job analysis (FJA) describes jobs in terms of… • What the worker does in relation to data, people, and jobs • What methods and techniques the worker uses • What machines, tools, and equipment the worker uses • What materials, products, or services are produced

  15. Job Requirements Education Personalcharacteristics Job requirementsrefer to… Experience Knowledge Licenses Abilities Necessaryskills

  16. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) A PAQ accounts for human factors through analysis of… Information sources critical to job performance Physical activity and dexterity required by the job Interpersonal relationships required by the job Reactions of individuals to working conditions Information processing and decision makingcritical to job performance

  17. Job context refers to such factors as… Job Context Environment within which the job is to be performed Extent of supervision required or exercised Physical demands and working conditions Degree of accountability & responsibility Consequences of error

  18. Job Analysis in Different Settings Jobs in theFactory Jobs in theService Economy Specialization Human factors Time and motion study Technology Work simplification Knowledge workers Standard methods Team-based Broad job descriptions

  19. The Results of Job Analysis • Job designs are the results of job analysis • They specify three characteristics of jobs • Range • Depth • Relationships

  20. The Results of Job Analysis Job Range The number of tasks a jobholder performs Amount of discretion an individual has to decide job activities and job outcomes Job Depth Two employees with the same job title may possess more, less, or the same amount of job depth Job range and depth distinguish one job from another, within the same organization, and among organizations

  21. Job Depth and Range

  22. Job Relationships • Job relationships are determined by managers’ decisions regarding • Departmentalization bases • Spans of control • The wider the span of control, the larger the group • Consequently, the harder it is to establish friendshipand interest relationships • Cohesiveness • Depends on the quality and kind of interpersonal relationships within the group

  23. Job Relationships • Functional job bases place jobs with similar depth and range in the same groups • Product, territory, and customer bases place jobs with dissimilar depth and range into groups • People in homogeneous, functional departments feel less stress and more job satisfaction than those in heterogeneous groups

  24. The Way People Perceive Their Jobs • Taylor proposed that the way to improve work is to determine… • The best way to do a task (motion study) • Standard time for task completion (time study) • Job design based solely on technical data ignored the human aspects • Workers have different backgrounds, needs, and motivations • They experience the social setting of the job in unique ways

  25. The Way People Perceive Their Jobs • You can’t understand the causes of job performance without considering individual differences • Personality • Needs • Span of attention • Social setting • To understand perceived job content, some method for measuring it must exist

  26. Job Characteristics • Requisite Task Attribute Index (RTAI) • Employees with similar perceptions, job designs, and social settings should report similar job characteristics

  27. Perceived Job Characteristics Feedback Task identity Dealingwith others Perceived jobcharacteristics Autonomy Friendshipopportunities Variety

  28. Individual Differences • Provide filters • Different persons perceive the same stimuli in different manners • Differences in need strength influence the perception of task variety • Those with weak higher-order needs are less concerned with performing a variety of tasks than are employees with strong growth needs

  29. Social Setting Differences • Differences in social settings affect perceptions of job content • Includes leadership style and what others say about the job

  30. Designing Job Range • Scientific management • Created jobs that were limited, uniform, and repetitive • Resulted in high levels of job discontent, turnover, absenteeism, and dissatisfaction • Two strategies widen job range by increasing the number of job activities… • Job rotation • Job enlargement

  31. Job Rotation and Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Enlargement • Individuals move from one job to another • More job activities because each job includes different tasks • Increasing the range of jobs and the perception of variety in job content • Increasing the number of tasks for which an individual is responsible • Increases job range, but not depth

  32. Job Enlargement Focuses on increasing the number of job tasks Requires a longer training period, but job satisfaction increases and boredom is reduced Some employees can’t copy with enlarged jobs Enlarged jobs come at a price Job enlargement is a necessarypre-condition for job enrichment

  33. Job Enrichment Changes injob depth Direct Feedback JobEnrichment New learning Scheduling Uniqueness Personalaccountability Control overresources

  34. Job Enrichment • Job enrichment is a process that… • Encourages employees to behave like managers • Designs jobs to make such behavior feasible • Job enrichment and job enlargement aren’t competing strategies • Job enrichment necessarily involves job enlargement

  35. Job Enrichment Increasing the core dimensions of a job Combine task elements Assign whole pieces of work Allow discretion in selection of work methods Permit self-paced control Open feedback channels

  36. Job Characteristics Job Characteristics Personal and Work Outcomes Personal and Work Outcomes Critical Psychological States Critical Psychological States Experienced Meaningfulness of Work Experienced Meaningfulness of Work Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Autonomy Autonomy Knowledge of Actual Results of Work Activities Knowledge of Actual Results of Work Activities Feedback Feedback Employee Growth Need Strength Employee Growth Need Strength Job Characteristics Model

  37. Problems Associated With Job Design As workers are told to expect higher-order need satisfaction, they may raise expectations beyond what is possible Unless lower-level needs are satisfied, people will not respond to opportunities to satisfy upper-level needs Job design may be resisted by unions Tangible performance improvements may not been seen for some time

  38. Self-Managed Teams • Self-managed teams represent a job enrichment approach at the group level • SMTs determine their own work assignments with the team • They are responsible for an entire process • They select their own members and evaluate their own performance

  39. Self-Managed Teams Switching from a traditional hierarchystructure to work teams is not easy Notable barriers are resistance and misunderstanding Requires new workflows, processes, attitudes, behaviors Some may not like being responsible for goals that other team members did not help achieve Managers fear loss of control and status Managers are often not clear about their duties Must balance too much involvement and not enough

  40. Alternative Work Arrangements • Giving employees control over when they perform their work is increasingly popular • Alternative work arrangements • The compressed work week • Flextime • Job sharing • Telecommuting

  41. Alternative Work Arrangements Higher recruitmentand retention rates Improvedmorale Benefits of flexible work programs Higher levels ofemployeeproductivity Lower absenteeismand tardiness

  42. Virtual Teams • Virtual teams are geographically distributed, diverse groups of individuals • Technology allows interaction and cooperation • Benefits of virtual teams… • More flexible work arrangements • Decreased travel expenses • Increased customer responsiveness

  43. Virtual Teams • Face-to-face meetings and team-building exercises facilitate the development of trust • Extra effort must go into avoiding misunderstandings and miscommunications • The use of alternative work arrangements is increasing

  44. Job Embeddedness • Job embeddedness refers to… • An employee’s links with other people and teams within the organization • Perceptions of “fit” with one’s job, organization, community • Sacrifices that would be made if one left the job • Embeddedness can be increased • Place employees on teams with members who have compatible skill sets and personalities

  45. Total Quality Management (TQM) • TQM refers to an organizational culture that is dedicated to… • Continuous improvement • High-quality products and services • This, in turn, results in higher levels of customer satisfaction • TQM merges technical & human knowledge

  46. Total Quality Management (TQM) • Job design strategy • Focuses individuals’ needs for economic well-being and personal growth • Sociotechnical theory • Focuses on interaction between technical and social demands • Too much emphasis on one demand or the other results in poor job design