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COMP 578 Data Warehouse and Data Warehousing: An Introduction

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  1. COMP 578Data Warehouse and Data Warehousing:An Introduction Keith C.C. Chan Department of Computing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

  2. What is A Data Warehouse? A data warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, and nonvolatile collection of data in support of management’s decision-making process.— W. H. Inmon HRO Health Data Warehouse Student ITs

  3. Data Warehousing and Industry • One of the hottest topic in IS. • Over 90% of larger companies either have a DW or are starting one. • Warehousing is big business • Old statistics from Megroup. • $3.5 billion in early 1997 • $8 billion in 1998 [Metagroup] • over $200 billion over next 5 years. • Latest by IDC on DW tools. • $5 billion in 1999. • $16 billion in 2004. • Latest by IDC on CRM applications • $61 billion in 2001 • $148 billion in 2005

  4. Data Warehousing and Industry (2) • A 1996 study of 62 data warehousing projects showed an average return on investment of 321%, with an average payback period of 2.73 years. • In 2003, some people are skeptical. • WalMart has largest warehouse • 900-CPU, 2,700 disk, 23 TB Teradata system • ~7TB in warehouse • 40-50GB per day

  5. Why Data Warehouse?Why The Hype?

  6. Information vs. Data • Information is pivotal in today’s business environment. Success is dependent on its early and decisive use. A lack of information is a sure sign for failure. The rapidly changing environment in which business operates demands ever more immediate access to data. (Devlin, 1997) • Many corporations are actively looking for new technologies that will assist them in becoming more profitable and competitive. Gaining competitive advantage requires that companies accelerate their decision making process so that they can respond quickly to change. One key to this accelerated decision making is having the right information, at the right time, easily accessible (Poe, 1996).

  7. The Information Gap • The information gap is a result of: • Fragmented way in which ISs and supporting DBs have been developed. • One-thing-at-a-time due to constraints on time and resources. • DBs on a variety of hardware and software platforms. • Difficult to locate and use accurate information. • Most systems developed to support operational processing. • Operational processing (a.k.a. TP) captures, stores and manipulates data to support daily operations. • Little thought given to the information or analytical tools needed for decision making.

  8. Bridging The Information Gap • Data warehouses (DW) consolidate and integrate information from many different sources and arrange it in a meaningful format for making accurate business decisions (Martin, 1997a). • They support complex business decisions through analysis of trends, target marketing, competitive analysis, and so on. • Data warehousing has evolved to meet these needs without disturbing existing operational processing.

  9. What Are The Issues? • How DW relates to existing operational systems. • Data architecture appropriate for most DW environments. • Extracting data from existing operational systems and loading them into a DW. • Interact with DW using OLAP, data mining and data visualization.

  10. Data Warehouse & Data Warehousing as Solution

  11. The Need for Data Warehouses • Two major factors drive the need for data warehousing in most organizations today: • Business requires an integrated company-wide view of high-quality information. • The IS department must separate informational from operational systems in order to dramatically improve performance in managing company data.

  12. Need for a Company Wide View • Data in operational systems typically fragmented and of poor quality. • Generally distributed on a variety of incompatible HW and SW platforms: • Unix running oracle DBMS • IBM MVS running the DB2 DBMS • Often necessary to provide a single, corporate view of that information for decision making.

  13. Deriving a Single Corporate View • Develop a profile for each student from: • STUDENT_DATA, STUDENT-EMPLOYEE, STUDENT_HEALTH • Some issues to resolve: • Inconsistent key structures: HKID and student name • Synonyms: Student_No and Student_ID. • Free-form vs. structured fields: Last name, first name. • Inconsistent data values: different phone numbers. • Missing data: how will the value for insurance be located?

  14. Need to Separate Operational and Informational Systems • Operational system used to run a business in real time based on current data. • E.g. sales order processing, reservation systems, patient registration, • Process large volumes of relatively simple read/write transactions, while providing fast response. • Information systems designed to support decision making based on historical data. • Designed for complex and read-only queries or data mining application. • Sales trend analysis, customer segmentation, and human resource planning.

  15. Need to Separate Operational and Informational Systems (2) • It is essential to separate informational processing from operational processing by creating a data warehouse. • A DW centralizes data (at least logically) that are scattered throughout disparate operational systems and makes them readily available for decision support. • A properly designed DW adds value to data by improving their quality and consistency. • A separate data warehouse eliminates much of the contention for resources that results when informational applications are cofounded with operational processing.

  16. Data Warehouse vs. Operational DB Systems • OLTP (on-line transaction processing) • Major task of traditional relational DBMS • Day-to-day operations: purchasing, inventory, banking, manufacturing, payroll, registration, accounting, etc. • OLAP (on-line analytical processing) • Major task of data warehouse system • Data analysis and decision making

  17. Data Warehouse vs. Operational DB Systems • Distinct features (OLTP vs. OLAP): • User and system orientation: customer vs. market • Data contents: current, detailed vs. historical, consolidated • Database design: ER + application vs. star + subject • View: current, local vs. evolutionary, integrated • Access patterns: update vs. read-only but complex queries

  18. Why Separate Data Warehouse? • High performance for both systems: • DBMS — tuned for OLTP: access methods, indexing, concurrency control, recovery • Warehouse — tuned for OLAP: complex OLAP queries, multidimensional view, consolidation. • Different functions and different data: • missing data: Decision support requires historical data which operational DBs do not typically maintain • data consolidation: DS requires consolidation (aggregation, summarization) of data from heterogeneous sources • data quality: different sources typically use inconsistent data representations, codes and formats which have to be reconciled.

  19. Advantages of Warehousing Approach • High query performance • But not necessarily most current information • Doesn’t interfere with local processing at sources • Complex queries at warehouse • OLTP at information sources • Information copied at warehouse • Can modify, annotate, summarize, restructure, etc. • Can store historical information • Security, no auditing • Has caught on in industry

  20. The Terms &The Definitions

  21. The Data Warehouse • Strategic response to customer requirement for providing and processing information: • at various levels of abstraction • using history for trend analysis • with high performance • What it provides • - A protected business decision support environment • - A repository of consolidated corporate data • - A staging area for revitalizing operational systems

  22. Multi-Dimensional Database Data Rotation What is A Data Warehouse Middleware O L A P M e t a D a t a Data Scrubbers Data Warehouse Manager Data Mart D S S E I S Dimensional Data Modeling ESS Data Mining Star Schema Data Propagation Multi-relational tools

  23. What is a Data Warehouse?A Practitioners Viewpoint “A data warehouse is simply a single, complete, and consistent store of data obtained from a variety of sources and made available to end users in a way they can understand and use it in a business context.” -- Barry Devlin, IBM Consultant

  24. What is a Data Warehouse?An Alternative Viewpoint “A DW is a • subject-oriented, • integrated, • time-varying, • non-volatile collection of data that is used primarily in organizational decision making.” -- W.H. Inmon, Building the Data Warehouse, 1992

  25. The Data Warehouse • Key characteristics • Subject-oriented • Integrated • Time-variant • Nonvolatile

  26. Subject Oriented Operational Applications/ Databases Data Warehouse Subjects • Data is stored by business subject rather than by application • Order Billing • Accounts Receivable • Accounts Payable • Loans • Savings • Life Insurance Claims Processing • Auto Insurance • Customer • Claims • Sales • Product

  27. Integrated • Data is stored once in a single integrated location Operational Environment Decision Support Environment Savings Database Data Warehouse Database Savings Application No Application Flavor Customer data stored in several Databases Current Accounts Database Current Accounts Application Personal Loans Database Personal Loans Application Subject = Customer

  28. Time-variant • Data is stored as a series of snapshots or views which records data content and context across time. Data Warehouse Data { Time Data Key, Version and Date timestamp - Data is tagged with some element of time - creation date, as of date/to , etc. - Data is available for long periods of time. For example, five or more years

  29. Non-volatile External Source Systems • Existing data in the warehouse is not overwritten or updated. Create Update Delete Transactions Internal Source Systems Data Warehouse READ-ONLY Data Warehouse Business Users & Applications

  30. How the Data Warehouse evolved Operational Reporting Data Extraction/Replication Data Warehouses Data Marts OLAP Servers Data Mining

  31. Extraction Transformation Cleansing Line of Business Data Marts extend the concept Business Source Systems • Extends the concept of Data Warehousing into the various lines-of-business in support of specific needs for business intelligence Data Staging/Replication Layer Line of Business Systems External Data Other Data Warehouse Data Marts

  32. Extraction Transformation Cleansing Data Mining further extends the concepts of tactical access to data in support of specific business objectives Business Source Systems • Specialized applications which run on OLAP servers for drill-down processing • Can include access by neural nets, gophers and agents Data Staging/Replication Layer Line of Business Systems External Data Other Data Warehouse

  33. Data Warehousing • Definition 1: • The process of constructing and using data warehouses • Definition 2: • The process whereby organizations extract meaning from their informational assets through the use of data warehouses.