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Chromosomes and Genes

Chromosomes and Genes

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Chromosomes and Genes

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  1. Chromosomes and Genes

  2. 1. Define the following terms. • Zygote – cell formed from 2 gametes after fertilization • Dominant – capital letter/ main characteristic • Recessive – small case letter/ must have two of the same to have this physical characteristic • Homozygous -- sameTrait – Physical characteristics/ phenotype • Heterozygous – different/ opposite • Genotype – genetic make-up • Phenotype – physical make-up/ physical characteristics • Complete Dominance – capital/ capital • Incomplete Dominance – capital/ small case

  3. 2. What are the three parts of the cell? Membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus (sometimes includes chromosomes) a. What is the cell cycle? Interphase--) mitosis --) cytokenisis 3. What is meiosis? Cell splits creating a new cell with ½ of the chromosomes – double helix

  4. 4. What is mitosis? Nucleus divides producing 2 new cells a. What are the four bases of mitosis? Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase…telephase b. Explain the following: • Interphase – application of DNA • Prophase – chromosomes condense and nucleus disappears • Metaphase – chromatids line up • Anaphase – chromotids split and go to opposite ends • Telephase – new nucleus forms in each end of the cell • Cytokinesis – cytoplasm splits producing 2 new cells

  5. 5. How many chromosomes does each cell contain? 46 a. How many pairs? 23 b. Define • Gamete – cell containing half of the chromosomes • Homologue – matching chromosomes • Crossing over – swapping genes 6. What are the allele combinations? (Genetic combinations) Dominate/ Dominate Dominate/ Recessive Recessive/Recessive 7. What is replication and regeneration? Replace and rebuild

  6. 8. What is DNA? Hereditary material in all living beings • What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid b. What are the four nitrogenous bases of DNA? Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine c. How do the bases pair up? A = T C = G

  7. 9. Who is the father of genetics? Gregor Mendel 10. What is the Human Genome Project? Mapping genetic research for the purpose of cloning.