Download
atoms the building blocks of matter n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

180 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter Unit 2

  2. Introduction to the Atom • Modern Atomic Theory • Subatomic Particles • Isotopes • Ions • Essential Standards and objectives: • 1.1.1 Analyze the structure of atoms, isotopes, and ions. • 1.1.2 Analyze an atom in terms of the location of electrons. • 1.1.3Explain the emission of electromagnetic radiation in spectral form in terms • of the Bohr model. • 1.1.4 Explain the process of radioactive decay using nuclear equations and half-life. • 2.2.5 Analyze quantitatively the composition of a substance. (Introduction to moles)

  3. The Atom: Smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of the element. Essential Questions: What is an atom? What is its structure? What determines properties of an element?

  4. Atoms act in orderly, predictable ways.

  5. PHET Build an Atom • Use this in the search window • Share a computer with a partner • Individual work (write your answers on a separate paper) • http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom

  6. Explain: How does this graphic demonstrate the characteristics of an atom? Make sure that you include each graphic (portions) in your explanation

  7. Reading: Cornell notes Essential questions: What are the characteristics of an atom? In your notes: address both individual atoms and atoms of an element

  8. Modern Atomic Theory • All matter: • Atoms of a given element: • Atoms cannot be created nor destroyed in: • In chemical reactions, atoms are

  9. Atomic Theory (cont.) • To form compounds: Law of Definite Proportions Law of Multiple Proportions

  10. Summary Table: Atomic Structure- Subatomic Particles SubatomicLocationChargeMassImportance ParticleAMU

  11. Designation of Atomic Structure • Atomic number (Z): • On the Periodic Table: • Mass number (A): • On the Periodic Table:

  12. Representing atoms • Information from symbols and the Periodic Table

  13. What does this symbol tell us? Protons: Neutrons: Electrons:

  14. 20 Ca 40.08 Designations for the Atomic Structure Atomic number (Z): • On the Symbol • On the Periodic Table Mass number (A): • On the Symbol • On the Periodic Table

  15. Review: What is Z? What is A? Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 31 Ga Gallium 69.72 32 Ge Germanium 72.61

  16. Periodic Table: an Important Tool in Chemistry but no set rules for what is included and where 16 S 32.06 S 16 32.06 How can we tell which is the atomic number and the mass number?

  17. AMU = relative measurement and used for comparison Atomic Mass Unit AMU The “amu” is defined as one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12  (with 6 protons and 6 neutrons) and has a value of 1.660538921×10−27kg.

  18. Organization of the Periodic Table • Columns – Groups • All the elements have similar chemical and physical properties • All will chemically react in a similar way • Names of groups • Rows – Periods • Elements have same number of energy levels

  19. Isotopes

  20. Isotopes - Discovery Education Video

  21. Isotopes: • Atoms of an element with different masses • Naturally occurring • Some are stable and some are radioactive (unstable) • Isotopes of an element have the same number of ___________ and a different number of ______________.

  22. Identifying Isotopes • Isotope Notation 1. 2. On the Periodic Table, the number with the Decimal point is:

  23. Atoms of the Same Element

  24. Atoms of the Same Element

  25. Atoms of the Same Element

  26. Atomic Mass • Weighted Average Mass of isotopes • Based on the percentage of each isotope present.

  27. Grades are often computed using a weighted average. • Suppose that homework counts 10%, quizzes 20%, Labs 10% and tests 60%. • If: homework grade is 92 quiz grade is 68 lab grade is 88 test grade is 81 What’s the overall grade?

  28. Practice • Atomic Structure • Identify the number of proton, neutron, & electrons of an atom of a specific element • Rounding the atomic mass on the Periodic Table gives the mass of the most common isotope • Atomic Number & Isotopes • Correct symbol: A & Z • Complete the table • Complete the questions.

  29. Practice: • Find the Average Atomic Mass • Nucleus of each atom is represented • Graphic below #4 - explains #5-7 • Isotopes: Atomic Number & Mass Number • Determine based on the chart – not the PT • 2 Isotope notations • Element – A (X-A) A ZX

  30. Find Average Atomic Mass

  31. Atomic Number & Isotope

  32. Isotopes: Atomic Number & Mass Number

  33. Atom: Scanning Tunneling Microscope

  34. Here are several models of the atom as they were developed in history: ............ ...... ................ Development of the Modern Atomic Model

  35. Atomic investigation – Discovery Education Video

  36. Bohr - Discovery Education Video

  37. Quantum Model • Electron Cloud model of the atom

  38. Representing atoms with the Bohr model

  39. Representing atoms with the Bohr Model

  40. Bohr Model – Simplified but Useful Model P1 P2 P3

  41. Bohr Model & the Periodic Table Making Conclusions Compare and Contrast • Why are elements placed in a group (column)? • Why are elements placed in a period (row?)

  42. Changing An Atom Changing an Atom

  43. Ions • Atoms can lose or gain electrons when bonding to make ionic compounds • We keep track of the number of electrons that can be lost or gained with oxidation numbers (also known as charges) • Ions are charged particles –when an atom has too many or too few electrons to be neutral • No change to the nucleus • Proton and neutrons stay the same number.

  44. Ions – Charged Particles 7. When atoms of elements form ions (__________ __________, they must either __________ or _______ valence electrons. Gain/lose? ChargeIon type? Metals Non-metals

  45. Why are ions important? The ___________________ charged particles are like a magnet. Therefore, they are strongly held together in an ______________ _____________ forming an _____ ________________.

  46. Representing atoms with the Bohr Model

  47. Ions Lithium atom - Lithium ion Ion Symbol p+ p+ nº nº e- e- Fluorine atomFluorine ion p+ p+ nº nº e- e-

  48. Ions and ChargeNet electric charge Note change 8

  49. Ions and Charges for Representative Elements (Oxidation number keep track of electrons)