American History Colonial America
Trial of John Peter Zengher Freedom of the Press
John Peter Zenger • John Peter Zenger (October 26, 1697 – July 28, 1746) was a German-American printer, publisher, editor and journalist in New York City. He was a defendant in a landmark legal case in American jurisprudence that determined that truth was a defense against charges of libel and "laid the foundation for American press freedom.
The French & Indian War (1756 – 1763) “The Great War for Empire”
Was 1763 a "turning point" in British-colonial relationships???
1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne* George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA • Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
1755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) • Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. • Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana. CAJUNS
1756 War Is Formally Declared! Lord Loudouin Marquis de Montcalm Native American tribes exploited both sides!
British-American Colonial Tensions Methods ofFighting: • Indian-style guerilla tactics. • March in formation or bayonet charge. MilitaryOrganization: • Col. militias served under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. MilitaryDiscipline: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Drills & tough discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising taxes. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister • He understood colonial concerns. • He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. -Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758.
1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England *By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain -->got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England -->got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that amajor reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1.It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.
BACKLASH! British Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)
The Road to Revolution: (1770-1776)
The Gaspee Incident(1772) Providence, RI coast
Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. broaden the resistance movement.
Tea Act (1773) • British East India Co.: • Monopoly on Br. tea imports. • Many members of Parl. held shares. • Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) • North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
The Coercive or IntolerableActs (1774) 1. Closed Boston Harbor 2. Banned town meetings 2. New Quartering Act Lord North 4. Administration of Justice Act
First Continental Congress(1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts 1 vote per colony represented.
The British Are Coming . . . Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard ’Round the World! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
The “Shot Heard Round the World” • British soldiers in Boston were sent to capture the militias weapons. • Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Israel Bissell warned the colonists that, “The Red Coats are coming.” • British troops marched to Concord to capture colonial leaders and the ammunition and weapons that were stored there. • The first two battles of the American Revolution were fought at Lexington and Concord, when the American militia met up with British forces.
The Second Continental Congress(1775) Olive Branch Petition
Was the American Revolution Inevitable??
Common Sense • Common Sense, written byThomas Paine was apamphlet that encouraged colonists to declare independence from Great Britain. • Common Sense was very influential because it was read by many people.
The Declaration of Independence • The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776. • The main writer was Thomas Jefferson. • The Declaration of Independence was written to tell the world that the United States was now a free and independent county, free from the rule of King George III and Great Britain. • Your assignment follows.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
evident • Obvious, clear • Easy or clear to understand
endowed • Given, gifted • To give somebody something they want