Aggression… Mr. P. Leighton Sports Psychology Y13
Today’s Session… • Look at and understand the impacts of aggression on performance and behaviour- theories linked with this… • Understand the difference between Aggression and Assertion (Hostile and Channelled aggression) • What are the causes of Aggression?
What is aggression? • “Aggression is any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means”. (Bull, 1990) • “Aggression is any form of behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment” (Baron)
Aggression (Hostile) Prime motive is to harm. Aim is to injure. A Violation of the rules in any game. Dysfunctional to the sport. “Hostile Destructiveness” (Parens, 1988) Assertion (Channelled) Within the rules and in the spirit of the game. Forceful, robust but functional. Extension of completing the skill successfully. “Self-protective mastery behaviour” (Parens, 1988) Aggression and Assertion…
Theories on Aggression…Instinct Theory: (Trait theory) • Freud (1920) was updated by Lorenz (1966). • “Behaviour is always predictable”. • Aggression is genetically inherited. • Violence lies within everyone (dormant or active) • Freud called this “The death instinct”- we all seek aggressive destruction (War, Violence, Aggression in sport) • Lorenz stated that aggressive energy is constant- needs a release… link to catharsis?
Social Learning Theory… • Bandura stated? ________________________. • Aggression is ___________________________ . • Aggression is ____________ by watching another performer or role model. • It is accepted if reinforced by others. • It will re-occur if it is part of the norm of the group i.e. Oakland Raiders/ Ice Hockey teams. All behaviour is learned Nurtured through environment. Learned
Frustration Aggression Hypothesis: (Interactionist perspective) • Dollard (1939) stated frustration occurs when goal-directed behaviour is blocked. • Frustration increases when the goal reflects ego or outcome orientation i.e. winners win. • Environmental situations: Defeat, good opposition, officiating. • Frustration created by the environment triggers the aggressive gene. • If the act is successful frustration is released (Catharsis) • If the act is unsuccessful: punishment and more frustration.
Aggression Cue Hypothesis: (Interactionist perspective) • Berkowitz (1969) built on the research by Dollard. • He agreed that frustration leads to increased arousal, however he disagreed that frustration alone caused aggression. • Frustration created “readiness” for aggression which is only triggered when a proactive environmental cue is present. • Aggressive cues such as unfairness (perceived) the opposition shirt or nature of the game will trigger aggression if arousal is high. • However, better players can control this frustration and arousal.
Controlling and Eliminating Aggression… • Major factor in optimising performance. • Aggression in any theory inhibits concentration and team cohesion. • Gill (2000) stated that there is no evidence that aggression or aggressive acts improve performance.
Cognitive (Psychological) Thought processes that lower cognitive arousal. Includes imagery that focus on achieving a calm state of mind (mental rehearsal + vicarious experience?) How do you calm down? Count to 10 Imagery Distancing from cues Somatic (Physiological) physiological processes: PMR and breathing. BIOFEEDBACK (HR/ Breathing rate etc) helps control this state. Non-aggressive behaviour should be reinforced to ensure a favourable S-R bond. Aggression can be controlled through attribution- success- ability not to intimidation. Eliminating Aggression…
Continued… Somatic (Physiological) • Task orientated performers judge themselves against their own ability… • Ego- orientated performers judge themselves against others… trigger aggression? • Kavussanu (1997) agreed with this… “performers striving for ego orientated goals are more likely to engage in cheating behaviours, play unfairly and be inclined to injure others”. • How can this be combated? • Create a task-orientated environment.
Detrimental effects of aggression… • Silva (1979) proposed that hostile aggression may increase arousal causing reduced concentration and _____________ . • Underachievement can lead to LEARNED HELPLESSNESS and an inclination to give up. • Silva also stated that aggressors can are more likely to be injured or removed from the game (dysfunction) • Aggressors also feel anger and less satisfaction more often- leading to them having reduced motivation to continue.
Work for you… • Attempt this exam style question, “Describe three methods that a coach might use to eliminate aggressive tendencies of performers and to encourage healthy active lifestyles” (6)