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BIOL 121 – The Unity of Life

BIOL 121 – The Unity of Life

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BIOL 121 – The Unity of Life

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  1. BIOL 121 – The Unity of Life Instructor: DW Buckalew Office: 305A Sciences Office Hours: M 3:00 – 5:00 pm F 8:00-10:00 am

  2. Welcome aboard! The Biosphere is the limit!!

  3. How to Succeed in Science courses • Attendance is a MUST – you will need to take notes! • Timeliness is a MUST – you need to be present to take notes! • Read the textbook from this day forward…. • Begin projects early • Don’t be rude – turn off cell phones, refrain from talking • Biology I is essentially Intro Biochemistry – look at the topics! • You’ve seen/heard much of the info before? Probably so. • You’ve had to synthesize the amount req’d for Biology I? • Probably not.

  4. How to Succeed in Science courses COMMUNICATE – talk with faculty when problems arise (notice the word “IF” was not used) “ROLL WITH THE PUNCHES” – bounce back from low test/quiz scores DELAY IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION – the pursuit of the degree is difficult KEEP YOUR EYES ON THE PRIZE – graduation is closer than you think! Work Hard!!

  5. 1) Brett Montgomery ('03) MD program at EVMS 2) Matthew Kren ('04) MS Biology – VCU; DVM Program – Ross University 3) Renae Trombley ('04) Doctoral program - VCU/MCV Physical Therapy 4) Richard Scherer ('04) Doctoral program - VCU/MCV Physical Therapy 5) Brian Belliveau ('05) Ph.D. program in Molecular Biology at Notre Dame 6) Nick Hopson ('05) Doctoral program - VCU/MCV Physical Therapy 7) Amber Weems ('05) VCU School of Dentistry 8) Ryan Dunn ('05) MD program in Pathology at Duke University 9) Paul Hetterich ('05) MS in Clinical Micro/Immuno at VCU/MCV 10) Stephen "Matt" Akers ('04) MD/PhD program at West Virginia University 11) Frankie Simmons ('03) MD program - Howard University 12) Stephanie Thomas  ('04) Ph.D. Program at Old Dominion University               14) Stuart Bertsch ('05) MD program – VCU/MCV 15) Sara Lee  ('05) MS program – Forensics - Marshall University 16) Katie Wells ('05) Doctoral program - Shenandoah University Physical Therapy 17) Laura Wooldridge ('05) Physician's Assistant program - Shenandoah University 18) Casey Dertzbaugh ('06) Doctoral program VCU/MCV Physical Therapy 19) Adrienne Hampton ('05) MD program - Northwestern University 20) Kelley Jernigan (06) Nursing Program at VCU 21) Quintin Lewis (06) Ph. D. Program in Molecular Biology – VCU 22) Jerry McCoy ('05) Teaching at Emporia Private High School 23) David Walker ('06) NOVA University School of Dentistry 24) Carolyn Howard ('06) MS program in Occupational Therapy - JMU 25) Crystal Freels ('06) Science teacher – Roanoke school district 26) Ray Stephens ('06) VCU Dental School 27) Albert Tuono ('06) DOM program - WV School of Osteopathic Medicine 28) Colleen Schamber ('06) MS in Biomedical Engineering – UVA 29) Nicole Woznick ('06) PharmD program - VCU

  6. 30) Kelly Brake ('06) - VCU School of Nursing 31) Catherine Dunn ('05) - Molecular lab tech at Cornell Medical College 32) Chelsea Norton ('05) - Lab specialist - Wyeth Pharmaceuticals 33) Catherine Melvin ('05) - Ph.D program in Microbiology - GMU 34) Christina Stewart ('06) - Lab technician - VCLS Richmond, VA 35) Michelle Wagner ('05) - VCU School of Nursing 36) Ashley Martin ('04) - MS program in Clinical Lab Sciences - VCU/MCV 37) Jason Chambers (06) – MS in Marine Biology – UNC-Wilmington 38) Tiffany Crane (07) – Post-Bacc – University of Cincinnati 39) Jennifer Smith Doss (07) – Officer, Va DCR – Fish and Wildlife 40) Michael Edwards (07) – DVM program – VA Tech 41) Jason Ferguson (07) – MS program in Fisheries – Univ Tennessee 42) Oscar Gonzalez (07) – Biomedical Engineering – VCU 43) Jane Ashley Hawkins (07) – BS Nursing program – Univ of South Carolina 44) Michael Joyce (07) – Post- Bacc – Pre-medical program – VCU 45) Courtney Kreft (07) – 2nd Lt – MASH surgical unit – Afghanistan 46) Joel Rowe (07) – MD program – VCU/MCV 47) Amanda Simmons (07) – MS in Microbiology – ODU 48) Whitney Slack (07) – MS Program in Nursing VCU/MCV 49) Emily Sturgill (07) – BS Nursing Program – GMU 50) Natalie Haines (07) – QC Biologist – American Type Culture Collection 51) Matt Lusk (06) – UNC Coastal Studies Institute

  7. Your name here (‘11) – attending graduate school at…. - attending professional school at… - teaching science at…… -lab/field scientist at/for…. Your future begins today!!

  8. Hot Topics in Biology: Emerging/Re-emerging diseases

  9. Hot Topics in Biology: Global Warming

  10. Hot Topics in Biology: Decline in Biodiversity

  11. Hot Topics in Biology: Fetal Stem Cells

  12. Professional scientists often immersed in research and development academia government industry Often requires a Ph.D. or other advanced degree degree Science-trained professionals Often employed by industry, business, education, and government in different ways Usually requires a M.S. or equivalent degree Career options – what’s out there

  13. You can enter many science careers with a B.S. • Research technician • Lab coordinator • Regulatory agent • Quality control specialist • Life science product sales • Biology B.S. with additional study: • Science journalism • Medical technology • 1° and 2° education • Pharmaceutical/agrichemical sales • Bioinformatics including law enforcement • Museum curator • Biology B.S. combined with other degree (i.e., MBA, JD) • High tech business or hospital management • Financial analyst of biotechnology firms • Patent law/technology transfer/environmental law • Environmental engineering

  14. M.D.: • Average of 4 years beyond PLUS 4+ years of residency/specialized training • Other professional medical degrees… • P.A. • D.V.M • PharmD. • D.D.S. • D.P.T. • D.P.M. • D.O.M. • Biology Ph.D. : • Average of 5-7 years beyond B.S. • College/university teacher • Research director in academia, government, and industry Typically obtained via paid assistantships The number of Biology Ph.D.’s employed in business and industry has increased steadily…over 50% of new Ph.D.’s are employed outside academia (Tobias, 2005) Over 1/3 have moved into management roles

  15. So let’s get started in the quest….Chapter 1- The Science of Biology • Biology is “the study of life” I. Characteristics of life: • Cellular organization • Order • Sensitivity • Growth, development, and reproduction • Energy utilization • Evolutionary adaptation • Homeostasis

  16. II. The Hierarchical organization of life • At the cellular level… Atoms join to form molecules Molecules join to form larger molecules (e.g. organics) Large molecules are assembled to form organelles Organelles are contained within a larger organized cell

  17. II. The Hierarchical organization of life • At the organismal level… Cells organized in 3 levels: tissue organ organ system The set of organ systems form the intact organism

  18. II. The Hierarchical organization of life • At the population level… Individual organisms form populations All populations of a single type of organism constitute the species All populations of different organisms living together in one place make a community The biological community PLUS the abiotic factors make up an ecosystem

  19. III. The Process of Science(science = L. “to know”) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) sought natural rather than supernatural causes for the unity/diversity of nature and, in doing so, revolutionized biology. Published the then controversial book, On the Origin of Species…etc in 1859.

  20. The Process of Science • Science seeks answers to natural phenomena • Activities that can be observed and measured • Activities that can be verified through testing

  21. The Process of Science • Science uses 2 ways to approach problem solving… • Inductive reasoning = Generalization that summarizes many observations • Deductive reasoning = Hypothesis testing and “if-then logic” – reasoning flows from general to specific

  22. How Science Is Done Science is a systematic process of testing alternative hypotheses

  23. Unifying Themes of Science • Cell theory • Robert Hooke (1665) to Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1700) to Schleiden and Schwann (1839) • All living organisms are made of cells, and all living cells come from other living cells. • Later, it was proposed that all cell came from pre-existing cells. • Molecular theory – “central dogma of molecular biology” • DNA is the molecule of inheritance • DNA encodes genes which make-up and control living organisms. • DNA  RNA  Protein

  24. Unifying Themes of Science • Evolutionary change • Life-forms have evolved varying characteristics to adapt to varied environments. • Evolutionary conservation • Some characteristics of earlier organisms are preserved and passed on to future generations.

  25. Articles on reservefor 1st Article Review • Nestle, M. 2007. Eating made simple. Scientific American. 297: 60-69. (Sept) • Grossman, D. 2004. Spring forward. Scientific American. 290: 84-92. (Jan) • Rennie, J. 2002. 15 Answers to creationist nonsense. Scientific American. 287: 78-85.(July) LWU electronic reserve: http://readpac.longwood.edu/search/r?biol+121