Northwest Ordinance (1787) (1787) Banned slavery in the Northwest territories
Louisiana Purchase (1803) Lead to the debate on expansion of slavery Doubled the size of the U.S.
Missouri Compromise (1820) Created MO/ME and banned slavery north of the 36° parallel 36’30 Line Kept the balance of free & slave states
States Rights and Nullification Nullification debate grew in the U.S. Senate: Webster-Hayne Debate Vice-President John C. Calhoun claimed “states should have final authority on whether to follow acts of Congress” He felt states had the right to judge if a law is constitutional Congressmen from South Carolina defended & promoted secession
Slavery and Abolitionism • Abolitionists believed slavery was morally wrong should be ended immediately • Southerners denied the allegations of Abolitionists and defended slavery and the treatment of African Americans
Mexican Cession and Gold Rush • Opened up new debate about the expansion of slavery • Many northerners did not want slavery to expand west • Southerners defended the expansion of slavery, arguing that slaves were property • The population boom in California lead to its admittance as a free state and an unbalance of power in Congress between free and slave states
The Debate of 1850 Debate in Congress centered on California becoming a state The Great Three take the lead in Congress Clay seeks a compromise and makes over 70 speeches in the House (Webster supported holding the Union together) In the Senate, Calhoun (too sick to read his own statements) calls for the south to secede – DIES DURING THE DEBATE
Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state Slave trade ended in D.C. Rest of the Mexican Cession open to slavery by popular sovereignty Texas gave up western lands Stronger Fugitive Slave Law to help southern slaveholders recapture runaway slaves in the north
Fugitive Slave Law • Helped slaveholders return escaped slaves to the south • Fugitives held without warrants • Commissioners paid $5 to release and $10 for return to slave owner • .
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Nebraska Territory split Popular Sovereigntywould decide issue of slavery in Kansas/Nebraska