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The Civil War

The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War The War between the states The War of Northern Aggression

  2. War begins • Secession Crisis • 12/1860 –SC ‘Declaration of Immediate Causes’ • Seizure of federal property in secessionist states • Failure to Compromise • JohnCrittenden’s Compromise • Guarantees the permanence of slavery in slave states • Reestab. the Missouri compromise for all present & future territory • Lincoln’s Inaugural Address • Since the Union was older that the Constitution, slave states could not secede • Acts of force/violence against US gov’t was ‘insurrectionary’

  3. Mobilization of the South Disadvantages • 5.5 million free people; Nearly 4 million enslaved • Limited liquidity • Wealth tied to land & slaves • Limited infrastructure • Had to construct a new constitution & gov’t and find leadership

  4. Southern Leadership • CSA Constitution • Similar to US, but w/explicit reference to state sovereignty, sanctioned slavery and prevented abolition • Established capital in Richmond • Honoring States’ Rights • With limited wealth tried to impose taxation & bonds (both unsuccessful) • Issued 1.5 billion in paper currency which led to 9,000% inflation • Relied on volunteers from the states, but in 1862 had to pass the Conscription Act, nearly 100,000 deserted in the last year of the war.

  5. Jefferson Davis • 1st President of the Confederate States of America • Former Mississippi Senator, Colonel in the Mexican-American War, West Point & college graduate • Had difficulty administering the loose confederation • As a trained soldier had greater ability in selecting battlefield leaders & trusting in their abilities

  6. Mobilization of the North Advantages • Over 22 million free people • Large base for volunteers & later draft • Nearly 2 million will serve • South seen as aggressor Disadvantages • In 1860, only 16,000 active service men • Many northern democrats were against the war ‘copperheads’ • Fighting on enemy territory • Faced greater civilian commitment than their own side

  7. Military Strategy • North • Had to destroy the Confederacy • Preserve pre-1861 status quo • South • Needed to avoid defeat • Needed to enlist support from foreign gov’t • Glory

  8. New York Draft Riots of 1863 • Federal gov’t in 1863 passed a conscription law • Allowed for the wealthy to hire substitutes for $300 • Due to recent layoffs & strikes in NYC where free blacks were hired as replacements, young Irish immigrants began rioting & lynching blacks • Only put down through federal troops firing on civilians • Paddy’s Lament •

  9. Northern Leadership • Republicans dominated Congress after secession • Nationalist Programs • 1862, Homestead Act • Morrill land Grant • High tariffs • Transcontinental RR • National Bank Acts • 1/3 investment from banks into national securities (bonds) • US treasury notes as currency

  10. Abraham Lincoln • Elected in 1860 w/39% of the vote • Will be challenged by Gen. McClellan in 1864, winning by only a 10% margin • No formal declaration of war b/c South was not an independent nation • By Executive order sent ships into battle, increased the size of the army & sent troops into battle • Suspended habeas corpus (13,000 civilians imprisoned) –later ruled unconstitutional • Ex Parte Milligan (1866) –Supreme Court no military tribunal allowed when civil courts do exist

  11. The generals • North • George Winfield Scott • George McClellan • Ulysses S. Grant • William Tecumseh Sherman • South • P.T. Beauregard • Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson • Joe Johnston • Robert E. Lee

  12. Gettysburg –Turning Point • Lee’s 2nd and last attempt to invade the North • Over 3 days, more than 51,000 men were wounded or killed • Pickett’s Charge –failed attempt to take Cemetery Ridge on the 3rd day of battle psychologically destructive to Confederate troops • Nearly 6,000 men died in the assault

  13. AP PARTS • Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. • But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

  14. War of attrition

  15. Technology • Colt repeating pistol • Winchester repeating rifle • Gatlin gun • Cannon & artillery • Siege warfare and trenches • Torpedoes & submarines • Ironclads • Rail road • telegraph

  16. Total War

  17. Changes in American life • US Sanitary Commission • American Red Cross* • Daily Postal delivery • Bureaucratic ‘red tape’ • Mechanized warfare • Combat from a fixed position • Draft/conscription • Open immigration • National Day of Thanksgiving • Abolition

  18. Prisoners of War Camp Sumpter Andersonville Ga Sept 9 1864 To MrsEllea Byrnes I want to leave to my mother the sum of $150 one hundred fifty dollars to support her during the rest of her life or in case of her death the sum above mentioned will be held in trust, by the Rev. P. Crudder of Gorham St. Catholic Church for my son Thomas Byrnes in case that he returns within one year of this date, in case he does not return the above mentioned sum will be left to my wife From John Burns Prisoner at Camp SumpterGa

  19. An end to war • Lee surrenders to Grant April 9th, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse • By April 1865, more than 618,000 men killed • Nearly 5% of the population • Lincoln assassinated 5 days later at Ford’sTheater