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THE CIVIL WAR

THE CIVIL WAR

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THE CIVIL WAR

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Presentation Transcript

  1. THE CIVIL WAR

  2. **Beginnings of the actual war -Fort Sumter (SC) — one of the last forts held by N -it had low supplies & might have to give up -Lincoln knew he could not send troops or the S would fight -decided to tell S he would send provisions NOT reinforcements -S didn’t see a difference

  3. -Apr. 12, 1861 S opened fire & after 32 hours took the fort -N saw it as a provocation -Apr. 15 — Lincoln called for 75,000 militia and the Civil War began • Border states: Missouri, KY, MD, Del., & later W.VA (6/20/1863) remained neutral -important due to rivers for navigating & manufacturing in KY, MD, Missouri -high white population

  4. Lincoln did not publicly declare that he was fighting to free the Blacks -to save union instead “Brother against Brother” — Crittenden had 1 son fight for S while another son fought for N; Lincoln’s wife had 4 brothers fight for the S

  5. **Advantages & Disadvantages • South Adv. (1) fighting on own soil (2) only fight to a draw (3) fighting for way of life (4) most talented officers [Lee, Stonewall Jackson] (5) men were good at fighting

  6. South Disadv (1) no factories (2) few RR’s (3) only 9,103,332 pop. [3,521,110 in slaves, 1.2 million combat age] (4) only $47 million in bank

  7. North Adv. 100,000 (1) had both farms & factories (2) 23 states & 7 territories [Calif., Ore, KY, Md, MO] (3) Some 20,000 miles of RR track (4) controlled the seas [superior navy] (5) larger armies (6) larger pop. (22,339,989) [4 mill, combat age] (7) $189 million in bank deposit

  8. North Disadv (1) Military, not well trained (2) less talented mil. leaders (3) had to “go into the South” • What if…. (a) Border states secedes? (b) Upper Miss. River Valley states stayed with the Union? (c) North demanded an armistice? (d) Europe broke blockade

  9. **Expanding Presidential Powers & Limiting Liberties (North) -All of the following were done by Lincoln but later approved by Congress Lincoln created a blockade around the South -increased size of military -ordered $2 million from the US Treasury for mil. Purposes -suspended writ of habeas corpus -held supervised elections in Border States, intimidated voters, limited the right of some newspapers

  10. Northern Army -1st relied on volunteers (quota from each state) -1863 Congress passed a draft (rich could hire subs or pay to the govt. $300 not to go) -result: “Bounty Brokers” would go to the poor houses in Eng. to get men to enlist

  11. Southern Army -enlisted men aged 17 to 50 -used a draft earlier -called “a rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight” • Women’s role -worked in factories, tended to the sick (1st female doctor Elizabeth Blackwell) nurses (Clara Barton)

  12. War Battles Begin (battles named differently: North named them for the waterways closest by; south for the nearest communities) -Lincoln originally planned to fight for 90 days -he did not necessarily want to get rid of slavery -only get the South to come back

  13. **1st Battle of Bull Run (Manassas Junction) {30 miles SW of DC} -July 21, 1861 — 1st major battle -Union troops fled but the Conf. were too tired to follow and finish • *Effects: -psychologically = (a) gave South too much confidence, (b) some felt it was already over, (c) hurt North’s morale for quick victory & caused them to buckle down

  14. **Lincolns plan of total war: The Anaconda Plan (1) blockade South (2) free slaves & remove economic base in South (3) take Miss. River & cut South in half (4) cut it up by putting troops in GA & the Carolinas (5) take Richmond (6) wear them down

  15. **Antietam (9/17/1862) — turning point & bloodiest battle of the war -turned out to be a draw, but Lee withdrew; -Union army under Gen. George McClellan chose not to pursue

  16. -crucial because (1) Br. & Fr. were on the verge of intervening but since N won they held off; (2) gave Lincoln reason to announce the Emancipation Proclamation **Emancipation Proclamation —Jan. 1, 1863 -“The Old South will be destroyed” -declared “forever free” the slaves in those Confed. States still in rebellion -border state slaves not effected (about 800,000)

  17. -Lincoln really could not free them, but allowed many to free themselves; only really strengthened the North’s moral basis **After Antietam, McClellan was eventually replaced by Gen. Meade -Lee decided to invade the North into PA -Lee met Meade at Gettysburg (Union = 92,000 men v. 76,000) in July, 1863.

  18. -battled back and forth for days, with no victor in sight -finally, the Union defeated Lee -from here on South at a loss : day after Union won at Vicksburg (by Grant) -a few months later, the Gettysburg Address given in the fall of 1863

  19. **After much searching, Lincoln finally found a competent leader: Ulysses Grant (victories at Fort Henry, Donnellson, & Shiloh) *Shermans March to the Sea - William Tecumseh Sherman (1864- 1865) -captured Atlanta (burned most of it) decided to take his men & live off of the land + go to Savannah (250 miles away) -destroyed everything in his 60 mile wide path all the way to the sea

  20. ELECTION OF 1864 -Lincoln renominated -Vice President became Andrew Johnson (War Dem., used to patch things up with border states) -Lincoln won 212 to McClellan’s 21 (from KY, Del. MD) -his win caused the South to lose hope

  21. Confederates finally surrendered (Lincoln would accept nothing less) -Union took Richmond & cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Va on Apr. 12, 1865 *Lincolns death -shot in Ford’s Theatre on Apr. 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth -upset over the treatment of the South

  22. **Cost of the War -Union army lost 2,324,516 + 1 million wounded -Conf. Army lost 260.000 + over a million wounded -entire nation lost a entire generation, including the best minds and potential leaders -$15 billion -surrender forever put down states’ rights & nullification -preserved democratic ideals -inspired other democratic supporters around the world