The Civil War 1861-1865 Chapter 20
Lincoln’s 1st Inaugural Address No interest in interfering with slavery where it already existed Sought to see laws of Union executed in all states Would use no force against the South except to hold, occupy, or possess property & places belonging to US Constitutional goal to establish “more perfect union” was perpetual & could not be undone except by all parties involved No objection to Corwin Amendment Constitution does not expressly say what can/cannot be done with slavery in territories Mail will continue
Jefferson Davis On the War "I tried all in my power to avert this war. I saw it coming, for twelve years I worked night and day to prevent it, but I could not. The North was mad and blind; it would not let us govern ourselves, and so the war came, and now it must go on till the last man of this generation falls in his tracks, and his children seize the musket and fight our battle, unless you acknowledge our right to self government. We are not fighting for slavery. We are fighting for Independence, and that, or extermination".........
Alexander H. Stephens (1812-1883), destined the next year to become vice president of the newConfederacy, wrote privately in 1860 of the Southern Democrats who seceded from the Charleston convention: “The seceders intended from the beginning to rule or ruin; and when they find they cannot rule, they will then ruin. They have about enough power for this purpose; not much more; and I doubt not but they will use it. Envy, hate, jealousy, spite…..will make devils of men. The secession movement was instigated by nothing but bad passions.”
Regarding the Civil War, the London Times (November 7, 1861) editorialized “The contest is really for empire on the side of the North and for independence on that of the South, and in this respect we recognize an exact analogy between the North and the Government of King George III, and the South the Thirteen Revolted Provinces.”
Flags: North/South NORTH VS SOUTH • BLUE/USA • United States of America or Union • President Abraham Lincoln • Capital: Washington, D.C. • Feds-----Federal • Yanks-----Yankees • Bluebellies • Blue coats • GRAY/CSA • Confederate States of America • President Jefferson Davis • Capital: Richmond, VA • Rebs------Rebels---”Johnny Rebs” • Secessh-------Seccession • Graycoats • Yellow bellies
Lincoln’s Inaugural Address • March 4, 1861- Lincoln took the oath of office • there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it • “physically speaking, we cannot separate” • Fort Sumter • As seceding states left the Union, they seized US arsenals, forts, mints, & public property within their borders. • 2 significant forts in the South remained: Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor –most important. • held fewer than 100 US troops commanded by Maj. Robert Anderson • running out of provisions • Lincoln sent an expedition to provision the fort- not reinforce it • April 12, 1861- cannon from the shoreline of Charleston bombarded the fort – 34 hours– no deaths—US garrison surrendered.
Effects of Sumter • provoked the North= unified many in the North • Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteers • Lincoln declared a blockade of Southern ports= not very effective • call for troops roused the South= Virginia, Arkansas, & Tenn. seceded– later NC ALSO (11 SECEDING STATES) • Richmond, VA== new Confederate capital.
Picture: Fort Sumter 1 SOUTH FIRES ON FORT SUMTER
Fort Sumter 2 SOUTH FIRES ON FORT SUMTER
Dixie DIXIE LAND I wish I was in the land of cotton, old times there are not forgotten, Look away, look away, look away, Dixie land. In Dixie land where I was born in, early on a frosty mornin',Look away, look away, look away, Dixie land. Chorus: Then I wish I was in Dixie, hooray! Hooray!In Dixie land I'll take my stand, to live and die in Dixie,Away, away, away down south in Dixie,Away, away, away down south in Dixie. Southrons, hear your country call you! Up, lest worse than death befall you! To arms! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Lo! All the beacon-fires are lighted, Let all hearts be now united! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Chorus: Advance the flag of Dixie Hurrah! Hurrah! For Dixie's land we take our stand, And live or die for Dixie! To Arms! To Arms! And conquer peace for Dixie...To Arms! To Arms And conquer peace for Dixie Chorus: Hear the Northern thunders mutter! Northern flags in South winds flutter!To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Send them back your fierce defiance!Stamp upon the accursed alliance! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie!
Dixie DIXIE LAND Chorus: Advance the flag of Dixie Hurrah! Hurrah! For Dixie's land we take our stand,And live or die for Dixie! To Arms! To Arms! And conquer peace for DixieTo Arms! To Arms And conquer peace for Dixie Chorus:Fear no danger! Shun no labor! Lift up rifle, pike and saber!To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Shoulder pressing close to shoulder,Let the odds make each heart bolder! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Chorus:Swear upon our country's altar. Never to submit or to falter,To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Till the spoilers are defeated,Till the Lord's work is completed! To arms ! To arms! To arms, in Dixie! Chorus:
Eastern Theater Western Theater
Why Lincoln holds the Border States • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, & West Virginia • all slave states • all contained a white population more than half of the entire confederacy. • Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri= almost double manufacturing capacity of the South & almost double supply of horses & mules. • Kentucky (strategically important)- Ohio River (fed by Cumberland & Tenn. Rivers) penetrated deep into area of Confederacy rich in grain, gunpowder & iron.
Lincoln holds onto the Border states • Maryland: Lincoln declared martial law & sent troops in (Maryland could cut Washington off from the North) • Western Virginia & Missouri: Lincoln deployed troops • Declared openly that it was not a war to free blacks because he did not want to push border states into the Confederacy. Southern Ohio (Butternut region), Indiana, & Ill. Settled mainly by southerners = pro-southern • Lincoln declared his main purpose was to save the Union. • War in the West • the Five Civilized Tribes : supported the Confederacy • Confederacy agreed to take over federal payments to the tribes & NA delegates invited to attend Confederate Congress= Indians provided troops to Confederacy
22 states 23,000,000 population Industrial economy Majority of transportation Lincoln, a military novice. Asks Robert E. Lee to command Union troops and declines Belief war is about slavery and preserving the Union. 11 states 10,000,000 includes 4 million slaves Agricultural economy Exports, not food Limited manufacturing and railroad lines. Davis, military experience. Better military leaders Belief war is about states rights, independence and preserving their war of life. NORTH VS SOUTH “The North’s major advantage would be its economy and the South’s main disadvantage was its economy”
Advantages for The South • Could fight defensively behind interior lines • Morale= defending homeland from invasion • Most talented military officers (Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. Jackson “Stonewall”). • More ready fighting force- Southerners bred to fight (“rebel yell”). Disadvantages faced shortages of factories- seized federal forts & supplies, ironworks etc.= managed sufficient weaponry • later- had shortages of shoes, uniforms, blankets • faced supply problems due to inadequate transportation • Population- 9 MILLION • Biggest weakness- economy
Advantages for the North • The North could grow its own crops & had a large manufacturing base • ¾ of the nation’s wealth • ¾ of the nation’s 30 miles of Railroads • controlled the sea- superior navy • sea power enabled the North to trade grain for ammunition & supplies from Europe • 4. More man power- 22 million (Fed by steady supply of immigrants).- 1/5 of Union soldier= foreign-born. • Disadvantages- soldiers less prepared; weak higher commanders
Chart: North/South NORTH AND SOUTH COMPARED Based on %
King Cotton Dethroned • Revolutions generally succeed with foreign intervention • The South held out hope of foreign intervention (Europe’s ruling classes supported the Confederacy) • Europe’s working classes were mostly supporting the North • the evils of slavery kept the ruling powers out • Why did British textile mill’s dependence on Southern cotton not bring Europe into the war? • over supply of cotton from 1857-1860 • Americans sent food etc. to alleviate economic crisis • Union army confiscated cotton as it marched & sent it to Europe • Confederates ran the blockades • Egypt & India supplied more cotton needs • Booming war industries relived unemployment • McCormick Reaper enabled North to send huge grain supplies to Britain.
Lincoln/Davis LINCOLN VS DAVIS vs • Born in Kentucky • Served as Secretary of War • Senator from Mississippi • Slaveowner • Served as Secretary of State • First and only President of the CSA • Born in Kentucky • Self-educated • Congressmen from Illinois • Abolitionist • First Presidential candidate for the Republican Party • Minority president
Lincoln & Diplomacy • Lincoln’s use of diplomacy helped prevent foreign intervention. • The Trent Incident (late 1861) US warship stopped a British steamer north of Cuba; & forcibly removed 2 Confederate diplomats= angered Britain= Lincoln freed the diplomats. • British building of Confederate commerce-raiders (the Alabama); Confederate commanders & British crew. • Captured over 60 vessels= angered the North • Charles Francis Adams (US diplomat)- got Britain to acknowledge that this should stop. • Alabama destroyed off coast of France 1864 • Confederate commerce-raiders (built in Britain) captured over 250 Union ships • 3.The Laird Rams- 2 Confederate warships being constructed in Britain (1863)= US protested & warned of war= Britain bought the two rams & added to Royal Navy • 4. Anger at France & Canada
Lincoln vs. Jefferson Davis Jefferson Davis • Confederate Constitution- had flaws; could not forbid states from leaving (secession) Confederacy. • Davis wanted a more centralized government & states rights advocates disagreed 2. Good Administrator; not popular with many Lincoln • Advantage of long established government • Financially stable government • Tactful, patient, firm
CSA Constitution CONFEDERATE CONSTITUTION When the Confederate States of America was formed, its founders wrote a constitution similar to the United States Constitution. Its differences, however, indicate how the South Wanted to change their structure of government.
CSA Constitution CONFEDERATE CONSTITUTION • MAIN DIFFERENCES: • State’s rights • Tariffs are equal throughout the CSA • Slavery is legal and is allowed to expand!
Rebel Cabinet CONFEDERATE CABINET
Lincoln Challenges Liberties in Wartime • Lincoln used & expanded executive power during the war (use of “Arbitrary Power”) • Lincoln enacted a blockade (while Congress was out of session), increased the size of the army- later supported by Supreme Court or Congress • Advanced $2 million to 3 private citizens for military purposes (Art. I, Sec. IX, para 7) • Suspended habeas corpus rights in areas to arrest Anti-Union citizens (SC said only Congress could do this according to Constitution) • “Supervised voting” in Border states , suspension of freedom of press
LINCOLN'S "NECESSARY" ACTIONS • Suspended “civil liberties” or parts of the Constitution • writ of habeas corpus: Protects from unfair arrest and trial by jury. • Occupation of Baltimore: Controlled by military---- “martial law” • Arrested over 15,000 civilians: Without “probable cause”---suspicious “Rebel” sympathizers. • Closed “rebel” newspapers: Violated 1st amendment rights of “free speech and press”. • First Income Tax • Greenbacks • 1st paper money
Volunteers & Draftees The Armies of the North At first manned solely by volunteers (provided by each state based on quota) (90%) • 1863 Draft – Congress passed 1st nationwide draft • The rich could hire substitutes or purchase exemptions for $300.= unfair to poor boys • Draft Riots- in the North; NYC the poor Irish immigrants rioted and attacked innocent blacks. • Enlistment Bounties- money offered by federal, state, & local government to enlist= “bounty brokers”= “bounty jumpers” • Union army recorded 200,000 deserters
Armies of the Confederacy • At first relied mainly on volunteers • South less populated had to resort to drafts etc. more quickly than the North 1862- The Confederate draft • Wealthy could hire a substitute or purchase exemption • Slave owners or overseers could be exempt if they owned 20 or more slaves (wealthy) • “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”- criticism • Draft agents stayed out of mountain areas
Economic Stresses of the War The North • Had most of the wealth= handle economic stress best Revenue • Excise taxes (tobacco & alcohol) increased by Congress • Income Tax- (for the 1st time) • Tariffs – helped the North; (Morrill Tariff 1861)- raised tariffs 5% to 10%= continued to rise during the war. (protective tariff identified with Republican Party) • Greenbacks-issued $450 million- not supported by gold = value fluctuated. • Borrowing- sale of bonds through Jay Cooke & Co. • National Banking System (1863)- standard bank note issue; banks could join & issue national notes & buy government bonds.
Northern Economic Boom • New Factories- fostered by protective tariffs • Manufacturers & business people become wealthy • 1st American millionaires emerge • Graft was rampant in the north- “age of shoddy” 2. New machinery= Economic expansion • Sewing machine= military clothing= standard sizes for clothing for civilians • Mechanical reapers= allow farm boys to fight=produced food for troops= sold excess to Europe= bought ammunition/arms 3. Petroleum- (1859- petroleum find in Penn.) – 4. Homestead Act 1862- 300,000 migrate west ** only Northern industry to suffer= ocean trade
The Economy of the South • Union Blockade prevented South from collecting tariff duties & hurt import/export • 1860 = 30% of nations wealth • 1870= 12% nations wealth • Confederate Bonds- sold at home & overseas ($400 million) • Increased taxes & taxed farm produce (Southerners opposed to tax hikes (1% of income raised this way) • Confederate money- over printing = inflation (9,000% inflation); Confederate dollar worth 1.6 cents at end of war. • Southern income levels 2/5 that of Northerners for a century after the war • Manufactured items scarce during the war
Women & the War • Opened new opportunities for women • Took jobs vacated by men (clerical, industrial employment (1 in 4 before the war; 1 in 3 during) • Unconventional roles- @ 400 posed as males & followed husbands to war. • Spies- 3. Medicine- Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell- 1st female physician organized US Sanitary Commission (trained nurses, etc.) • Clara Barton (Red Cross)& Dorothea Dix- turned nursing into female occupation 4. Misc. – women North & South helped with war effort. • Raised money for relief for widows, orphans, disabled soldiers