Civil War Terminology The Confederate States of America Known as: -The Confederacy -The South -Dixie -Rebels -Johnny Rebs Why fight? -Fighting war of Independence -Preserve their “Rights” The United States of America Known as: -The Union -The North -Yankees -Federals (as in Federal Government) Why fight? -Preserve the Union -Free the Slaves (1863 on)
11 Southern states seceded from the Union. South Carolina was the first. Followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. After the firing on Fort Sumter in Charleston, S.C., Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, and Tennessee also seceded.
4 slaves states did not secede. Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. The states became known as “Border States.” Although technically loyal to the Union, many people from these states fought for the Confederacy. The Confederacy also claimed these states as part their country along with parts of New Mexico.
The first shots of the Civil War: Fort Sumter 4/12/1861 • Federal Troops in Charleston, South Carolina at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor refused to surrender the fort. • So on April 12, 1861, Confederate cannon began firing at Fort Sumter, to begin the Civil War. The fort was soon destroyed and the Union Soldiers were forced to surrender. No one died in the bloodless beginning to the bloodiest war in American History. 1861
Abraham Lincoln • President of the United States during the Civil War • Against Slavery but was willing to keep it to preserve the “Union.” • Used the army to arrest many pro-secession politicians in Maryland so he could save Washington D.C. as the U.S. capital. • President Lincoln’s 4 brother-in-laws were Confederates. • He was the 1st president to wear a beard.
Jefferson Davis • President of the Confederacy during the Civil War • The first Capital of the confederacy was Montgomery, Alabama. • When Virginia seceded the Capital of the Confederacy was Richmond, Virginia
Robert E. Lee • In 1862 Lee took over the Confederate army. • Born in Virginia • Fought for the U.S. in the Mexican American War. • Lee privately ridiculed the Confederacy in letters in early 1861, denouncing secession as "revolution" and a betrayal of the efforts of the Founding Fathers. • Resigned from U.S. army to join the Confederacy because Virginia seceded
Lee was an excellent general and is one of the most celebrated military figures in American History. • Military historians continue to pay attention to his battlefield tactics and his maneuvering in battle. Lee mounted on his famous horse Traveller
Ulysses S. Grant • As we shall see Lincoln had a lot of problems finding good generals to win the war. Grant was his best but it took him awhile for Grant to prove himself. • Like Lee Grant had fought in Mexico, but unlike Lee, Grant came from a humble background in Ohio and had a drinking problem. He had even owned a slave before the war. • Grant was an excellent general, relentless and efficient, he eventually destroyed Lee’s army and the South. • He would go on to be the 18th President of the United States.
UNION Strategy U.S. Navy U.S. Navy The north used a blockade on Texas and the Gulf coast to stop all trading of cotton and war supplies. This was called the “Anaconda Plan”. It was meant to starve and divide the south and not let it trade with Europe
Battles of the Civil War A lot of the largest Civil War battles were fought between the two capital cities, Washington D.C. and Richmond Virginia.
Battle of Bull Run (called Manassas in the south)The first battle of the Civil War • The battle was bloody. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson and his Virginia Confederates held the middle of the line and chased the Union troops off the battle field giving the Confederacy a huge first victory. • Lincoln was extremely embarrassed by the performance of his army. Just under a combined 1,000 soldiers was killed. BULL RUN Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, General in the Civil War, received his nickname at Bull Run.
McClellan and the Army of the Potomac • After the loss at Bull Run the Union realized it needed to properly train its Army to defeat the South. • Lincoln selected George B. McClellan to train the Union Army and invade Virginia. • He build a huge “Army of the Potomac” • McClellan and Lincoln soon started to hate each other. McClellan though Lincoln interfered too much in military matters while Lincoln though McClellan was too afraid to fight. • McClellan would run against Lincoln in the 1864 Presidential election. George B. McClellan
Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia • Robert E. Lee took over the Army of Northern Virginia in early 1862. He soon turned into one of the greatest armies the world has ever seen. • Always outnumbered, the army fought brilliantly and won battles with excellent leadership from Lee, and his subordinate generals like Stonewall Jackson, James Longstreet, A.P. Hill, and John Bell Hood. The famed Texas Brigade, Texas soldiers who fought for the Army of Northern Virginia. “Texans always move them!” -Robert E. Lee
Battle of Shiloh • In Tennessee near an old church named Shiloh, the Confederate Army attacked the Union army led by Ulysses S. Grant. The battle was a bloody and both sides suffered a combined 20,000 casualties. The Union won the battle and invaded south along the Mississippi river.
Battle of Antietam • Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia invaded Maryland in attempt to get the people there to support the Confederacy. • McClellan attacked Lee near Sharpsburg, Maryland. • Over 25,000 casualties on both sides in the Battle of Antietam. • Battle was a draw but forced Lee to retreat, giving the Union a much needed victory and Lincoln the confidence to announce the Emancipation Proclamation which legally freed the slaves in the Confederacy