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The Civil War

The Civil War

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The Civil War

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    1. The Civil War

    2. Do Now: Imagine you are President of the ASC at Watchung Hills and the administration has decided to hand out laptops to students who have homeroom in the North building. Other students have threatened serious action if the laptops are given out. What would you do to solve the problem?

    3. Objectives for the Unit You will be able to devise how the various differences between the North and South led to the war. You will be able to devise how the war evolved from year to year. You will be able to devise how the leadership and strategies of both the Union and Confederate armies affected the outcome of the war. You will be able to devise and create an effective knowledge of the key battles during the war. You will be able to devise how the war ended, and know the turning points of the war.

    4. Secessionitis In 1860, there were 34 states in the Union, after Kansas was admitted as a free state Although sectionalism was rampant, no one really thought that a state would actually leave the union However, by the time Lincoln took office in March 1861, 7 states had already left the Union, and 4 more would follow Lincoln did not want to have a violent struggle to achieve reunion, but soon things were out of his control By April 1861, Southern troops had surrounded Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC, and prepared to lay siege on the fort.

    6. Key Leaders Abraham Lincoln: President George McClellan: Main General 1 Ambrose Burnside: Main General 2 Ulysses S. Grant: Main General 3 William T. Sherman: Demoralizer Joshua Chamberlain: Hero of GBurg William Seward: Sec. of State Edwin Stanton: Sec. of War

    7. Its On!!: Fort Sumter, SC April 12, 1861, 4:30 AM: Confederate batteries (cannons) fire upon Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor The fort is under the command of Major Robert Anderson, a former instructor at West Point, the US Military Academy The Confederates are commanded by General Pierre Beauregard, a former pupil of Andersons at West Point- how would you feel if you ever had to face a former teacher in war? (besides me of course) Anderson realized the situation was hopeless because the navy could not reach them in time to re-supply them with ammunition and proper equipment Anderson quietly surrenders, no one died. The South rejoices in the news, the North is devastated and shocked that a war has actually started!

    8. Your Job!!! Your job is to create a newspaper headline and cover story about the recent attack on Ft. Sumter and the coming of the Civil War You will work in groups of two or three Three groups will create a headline for a Northern paper Three groups will create a headline for a Southern paper Include an attention grabbing headline at the top of the article, and a reaction to what has just occurred!!! Remember that Southern people will react differently than Northerners. You will have 10 minutes to finish this assignment, and you may use markers or colored pencils if you would like

    9. Aftermath of Ft. Sumter Four days afterwards, Virginia seceded from the Union Lincoln had to deal with another crisis: what if Maryland seceded? Immediately, Lincoln moved without the consent of Congress and the Supreme Court to suspend habeas corpus Lincoln sent troops to Baltimore to arrest and imprison the mayor and other secessionists- without giving a formal charge Chief Justice Taney, from Maryland, declared that Lincoln had violated the Constitution and had no authority to suspend those rights Lincoln ignored him

    10. Lincolns Controversial Decisions Lincoln got away with suspending habeas corpus because Congress was in recess When they returned, he simply said he had no choice, and they agreed with him To get around any Constitutional issues, the military would arrest people instead of law enforcement This protected him since he treated them as prisoners of war instead of civilian prisoners He felt that the Executive Branch had a duty to act swiftly, and could not wait for Congress to make up their mind.

    11. The Big Problems for the Union At the beginning of the war, the Union army had about 17,000 troops, most of whom had never seen battle Barely any commanders had experience in battle as well Lincoln had one choice for the command of the army: Robert E. Lee Lee however went along with Virginia, because he didnt want to fight against his neighbors and friends As a result, the Union was left without a capable commander, and appointed Irwin McDowell as commander

    12. Advantages and Disadvantages for the Union Outnumbered the South in population 21 million to 9 million: about 4 million slaves were a part of the Souths population Obviously had an overwhelming superiority in terms of industrial capability Army was better equipped and more organized into proper divisions and regiments Lack of leadership and experience amongst the higher ranking officers Completely underestimated the determination of the Confederates: always a mistake.

    13. Advantages and Disadvantages for the Confederacy Had a much better knowledge of the land, since they were fighting in their own backyards Defending their homes and their way of life whereas the Union was trying to stop it Much better military leadership in Lee, Beauregard, Jackson, and Albert Johnston Poorly equipped and outnumbered Very little industry to provide for all the weapons and whatnot needed for the war

    14. First Bull Run: July 21, 1861 Even though little battles were happening across the country, there was no decisive battle for the first few months of the war In mid-July 1861, McDowell decided to attack the Confederates His goal was to cut off a Southern railroad at Manassas Junction, about 25 miles west of Washington, DC After that, the goal was to take Richmond, the Confederate capital The Confederate Army learned of his plan through a spy, and they waited for him along the banks of Bull Run Creek, near Manassas

    15. Bull Run Contd. Some prominent Washingtonians came and watched the battle with picnic baskets and champagne some people just dont think. McDowell and his 30,000 troops attacked the Confederates, who numbered around 22,000 troops under the command of Beauregard Immediately, the Confederate lines faltered, and victory seemed within the Union armys grasp by lunch time. Union soldiers began collecting souvenirs from the battlefield, but one section of the Confederate line refused to break and this rallied the Confederates.

    16. Rebel Yell General Thomas Jacksons section of the line held firm, holding like a stone wall Beauregard ordered a counterattack, and Jackson ordered his men to let out a loud yell, which became known as the rebel yell Soon, the Union army faltered and literally ran back to Washington The people who watched the battle were overtaken by the retreating Union army, and their idea of watching a decisive defeat of the Confederates By the end of the battle, some 8,000 people were killed, captured, or wounded. The idea of a 90 day war quickly went away.

    17. Aftermath The Union was embarrassed by the defeat, while the Confederates were jubilant People began to openly question the abilities of Lincoln and his generals People in Washington were shocked when the remnants of McDowells army staggered into the city dirty, exhausted and demoralized. It proved that the war would not be short to those that thought the Confederates had no hope at victory Lincoln and his staff realized that someone had to replace McDowell, so he chose a 34 year old successor in George McClellan McClellan was known as Young Napoleon because of his ego, but he was a great instructor for the army

    18. Review Quiz Why was Bull Run so important for the Confederates? Why did both sides think that the war would only last 90 days? Whose part of the Confederate line refused to waver? What were two things that Lincoln had to deal with during his first month or so in office? Why did so many Southern states mistrust Lincoln? What did Lincoln do that could be considered unconstitutional? Overall, do you agree with Lincolns moves, why or why not?

    19. Lincolns Issues After the defeat at Bull Run, Lincolns enemies in Congress and within his own cabinet began to openly question his ability as leader. McClellan, in his diary, referred to Lincoln as a baboon and gorilla, someone incapable of intelligence. The public also grew impatient because of an apparent lack of action on the part of Lincoln and his commanders. McClellan waited until he felt the army was ready for battle he did an outstanding job training them, but of course the Confederates were getting their defenses ready Lincoln implored McClellan to do anything and finally, after about 8 months, McClellan laid out his plan for the war.

    20. Lincolns Home Life Lincoln was married to a woman named Mary Todd, and they had four boys, one of which had died before he took office Lincoln adored his kids, especially the two youngest, Willie and Thomas, who were 11 and 8. Thomas was known as Tad, and was a rambunctious little kid who loved playing around the White House Willie had a great imagination, formed army regiments with his friends at school, and also goofed around the White House In early 1862, Willie got a fever and despite good medical care, died. Mary Lincoln went crazy from it, and even though it crushed him, Lincoln had to go back to working 18 hours a day he was never the same, nor was his wife, who wore black for the remainder of his Presidency.

    21. The Plans The Union thought the best way to defeat the Confederates was to surround them and push from multiple points Because the Confederates were surrounded, they would attack outwardly from a central location Of course, this was a big disadvantage since they already were outnumbered and outsupplied However, they were quick to attack and were always on the move, which made them difficult to find The Union wasted several opportunities to end the war, especially after Antietam and Gettysburg

    22. Anaconda Plan McClellan, Lincoln, and others decided the best way to defeat the confederacy was to cut it off from the rest of the world. The Navy would blockade the entire coast, and steam up the Mississippi River The Army would go down through Tennessee, and down the Chesapeake to southern Virginia, which would make the main army closer to Richmond The plan was solid, but McClellans inaction cost it valuable time that could have prevented a longer conflict

    23. McClellans Issues McClellan arrived in Virginia with over 120,000 troops, ready to strike but a lack of efficient maps made it difficult to advance The weather also didnt help, and most roads were so muddy they could barely advance To make matters worse, he was paranoid about moving too fast, which of course gave time for the Confederates to move and establish good defenses The one Confederate commander that was closest to him, MacGruder, had about 11,000 men less that 1/10 of what McClellan had MacGruder did some creative maneuvering, having soldiers walk in circles in and out of a clearing, making it look like his force was huge, and had a sporadic artillery barrage.

    24. Problems McClellan, rather than fighting, stayed his ground and dug fortifications again delaying things The Confederates basically laughed at him, and couldnt believe their luck McClellan could have easily advanced had he engaged the enemy, but for some unexplained reason, he didnt Lincoln was beside himself because of McClellan, and of course McClellan didnt think much of the gorilla so he ignored Lincoln Of course, it would have been a tough fight to Richmond, but given how many troops McClellan had, he could have perhaps ended the conflict pretty quickly

    25. Things Get Worse for the Union Despite victories at Shiloh, Fort Donelson, and the capture and occupation of New Orleans, the end was not in sight for the Union McClellan and his huge army still sat at Yorktown, VA waiting to attack that really small Confederate force commanded by Macgruder Finally after waiting a month to attack, he began an assault on the Confederates, but the next day the Confederates ran away to join the forces that surrounded Richmond McClellan rejoiced at his victory and of course bragged about it, even though he won because the Confederates decided to cut their losses and go help their friends McClellan reached the outskirts of Richmond, the troops could even hear the church bells from the city but again he hesitated to attack He outnumbered the Confederates, but still asked for 40,000 more men

    26. A New Force Emerges With McClellan approaching Richmond, and the city in danger, Jefferson Davis replaced Joe Johnston, the overall Confederate commander, with Robert E. Lee Lee had agreed to take command after serving as only an advisor to Davis, and McClellan was jubilant McClellan thought Lee was a softee, and hesitant to fight boy was he wrong (AGAIN!) Lee was determined to drive out the invaders that attacked his home state, and to motivate his troops, he renamed his army the Army of Northern Virginia, after his home region Lee was a genius that achieved amazing things despite being outnumbered, outsupplied, and outgunned. Soon he hatched his plan to drive McClellan nuts

    27. Lees Unexpected Move Lee decided to split his army in two, even though they were outnumbered He also sent JEB Stuart, his cavalry commander, to distract McClellan and the Union Stuart rode his troops about 150 miles around McClellans lines and cut off their lines of communication and led the Union cavalry on a wild goose chase Lee then attacked McClellan, and drove him back down the Peninsula. Everyone was shocked by the tactics he used, and McClellan didnt quite know how to react to Lees maneuverings Lincoln was demoralized so close to taking the Confederate capital, and it was lost

    28. Biography of Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jackson, better known as Stonewall, was Lees right hand man for most of the war He was extremely religious, and didnt mail a letter if he knew it would be in transit on a Sunday He did fight on Sundays though, and was fearless, sometimes reckless His job was to distract the Union army as much as possible, mostly in western Virginia along the Shenandoah mountains winning victory after victory with a relatively small, but dedicated army He always helped Lee out, and helped him win at Chancellorsville, 2nd Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and other small battles At the battle of Chancellorsville, he was accidentally shot by a Southern soldier while checking the lines at night After they amputated his arm, he developed a high fever and pneumonia dying a few weeks later. His death was a HUGE blow to the Confederacy, and Lee lost his most trusted colleague After Lee, Jackson is probably the most revered Southern General

    29. Weird Eventually, Lincoln had enough of McClellan after his lack of action by Richmond His decisions cost the Union dearly in terms of morale, manpower, and most importantly giving the South a sense of invincibility Lincoln replaced McClellan with John Pope, who wasnt that effective either Jackson and Stuart drove him nuts with random raids, and pretty soon he completely lost track of the Confederate army Eventually, he met them at the site of the first big battle of the war, Bull Run 2nd Bull Run was even worse than the first one, and the Union army was humiliated by Lee

    30. Other Things Lincoln also faced increased pressure from Abolitionists to free the slaves he hesitated Lincoln thought of a plan to pay $400 for every freed slave, and then encourage them to return to Africa or Central America He said his goal was to save the Union, and if that meant freeing all the slaves, he would do it, or if it meant not freeing any slave, he would also do it. He knew that if he freed all the slaves, the border states would probably join the Confederacy, and some Union soldiers would drop their weapons and also join the Confederacy Not only that, but the war wasnt going well enough where he could gain support for such a move. In short he was fighting to save his Presidency and the country.

    31. The Road to Antietam Lee had completely made life miserable for all his adversaries, including Lincoln He also happened to be gaining a reputation as one of the greatest military minds in history, US or otherwise He knew that if he wanted to strike a death blow to the North, he had to invade it and force it to terms He thought that if he went into Maryland, the people would immediately join them, and help his army out with supplies and food So he crossed the Potomac River into western Maryland in late August 1862 Soon, he would eventually face McClellan again, this time at the bloodiest one day battle in US history

    32. You thought McClellan screwed up before? After 2nd Bull Run, Lincoln had no choice but to reinstate McClellan, and of course he was cocky as ever He found out about Lee crossing into Maryland, and moved to stop his advance Along the way, his advance scouts searched an abandoned Confederate camp, and found some paper wrapped around cigars The paper was a copy of Lees battle plan, and the scouts immediately gave them to McClellan McClellan had the keys to ending the war, and somehow DIDNT DO ANYTHING!!! He waited a day before attacking the Confederates, which made a possible simple battle into an all out bloodbath

    33. Antietam Two days after McClellan received his gift, his army encountered the Confederates near the town of Sharpsburg, MD Had he attacked right away, he may have dealt a devastating blow to the Confederates, instead his men took up positions opposite the Confederate lines Lincoln needed a victory in order to go ahead with his plans to free the slaves Jefferson Davis needed a successful venture into the North to get the British and French to recognize the Confederacy as a nation Everything was on the table for both sides McClellan had about 60,000 men, and Lee had about 40,000 If Lee won, he would march on into Pennsylvania, and if McClellan won he could end the fight

    34. The Battle Lines

    35. The Dunkers The Battle of Antietam around 8 oclock near a little church, known as the Dunker Church Joseph Hooker commanded that part of the line for the Union, and he attacked the Confederates commanded by Stonewall Jackson and James Longstreet Most of the fighting happened in a cornfield, and by the end of the first hour or so, most of the corn stalks had been sheered by bullets Nothing happened, this ended in a bloody stalemate but a hint of what was to come

    36. The Sunken Road The worst fighting during the battle happened along a little road that happened to have slight slopes on either side, known as the Sunken Road The confederates held the road, and fired upon any Union soldier that came at them But eventually the Union attacked the Confederates along the road, forcing the Confederates to take the lower ground It was nasty, all the Union soldiers had to do was aim and shoot, and hundreds of Confederate soldiers fell It was the first thing that went somewhat well for the Union during the day

    37. SIDEBURNS!!!!

    38. Burnsides Bridge In the middle of the lines was a bridge that crossed the Antietam Creek On one side was 12,000 Union soldiers commanded by Ambrose Burnside (Sideburns) on the other was only 400 Confederates Instead of crossing the creek, which wasnt that deep, Burnside (who was good friends with McClellan) ordered his troops to only cross the bridge It was a turkey shoot for the Confederates, who happened to be on higher ground overloooking the bridge It was a disaster, and Burnside lost many men despite superior numbers This was the climatic clash during the battle, and soon the fighting had ended

    39. The End By the end of the day, the Union had 2,100 men killed, 14,000 casualties over all The Confederates had lost about 10,000 men, about a quarter of Lees whole army The 25,000 casualties marked the bloodiest day in American history Lee thought McClellan would attack him the next day to finish him off, but again McClellan didnt do anything So technically the Union won the battle, but McClellan allowed Lee to fight another day, which kept the war going Lincoln was able to get his Emancipation Proclamation, and the Confederacys hopes for foreign intervention were dashed

    40. Chancellorsville By May 1863, the Union once again reached a point where nothing seemed to go right McClellan is replaced with Burnside, who was replaced with Hooker right after the defeat at Fredericksburg Hooker was more aggressive than his predecessors, but he was just as cocky Lee was outnumbered 2 to 1, and still did another daring split of his army He met the Union army outside of a small town called Chancellorsville, and attacked them

    41. Lees Cool Move Lee did another daring maneuver to befuddle the Union army send Stonewall Jackson around the Union flank and march through a dense forest Hooker should have attacked Lees depleted forces, but instead he waited and Jacksons 28,000 men attacked them through the woods, and annihilated Hookers troops Unfortunately, Stonewall Jackson was shot while checking the lines at night, by his own troops Lee won his biggest victory, but it was also his costliest

    42. Writing Prompt/Discussion/Reflection: When Congress initiated a draft during the Civil War, not everyone appreciated it because it allowed wealthier people to pay a fee to be exempt from it and because it meant fighting for a cause you didnt believe in. You will be assigned one of the following roles: Irish immigrant from New York City, a farmer in Pennsylvania, the wealthy son (women were not allowed to be in the army yet) of a New York banker, a mayor of a small New Jersey town, or a construction worker from Boston. Using that perspective, address the issues surrounding the draft after five minutes get together with four other people representing the different roles. We will discuss as a class what your findings are after 10 minutes.

    43. Problems aside from the War During the war, the rate of immigrants coming into the country lowered greatly However, many of the immigrants that had arrived only a few years before the war served in the Union army, sometimes forming their own units Usually, they were the first ones drafted, and most of them were Irish from cities like Boston and New York Congress had passed a mandatory draft in 1863, and offered anyone who could pay $300, an exemption Most wealthy people, including Theodore Roosevelts father, paid the exemption fee to avoid being drafted However, most of the immigrants could not afford the fee, since it was at least half of their annual salary

    44. Problem 1: NY Draft Riots In 1863, after the Emancipation Proclamation, many immigrants feared two things: being drafted into an army in a war that most of them could care less about The resulting mass of free blacks that would compete with them for jobs On July 12, 1863, they held the first draft lottery under the new law, and New York City remained calm for the day The next day, several thousand rioters massed all over the city and attacked draft offices and military offices Soon the rioters attacked free blacks, including children in an orphanage, because they felt that blacks got preferential treatment from other whites Most of the East Side of Manhattan was in chaos Over the next two days millions of dollars worth of damage had been done, and between 25-100 people were killed (estimates) Lincoln had to send in troops to restore order, and they remained there for several weeks

    45. Images from the Draft Riots

    48. Problem 2: Finances Before the war began, both the Confederacy and the Union were pretty wealthy compared to most countries But neither of them had ever had to support such large armies and wage a long term war. There were three ways to pay for a war: taxes, loans, and the printing of paper money The North mostly took out loans to pay for the war, and tried to raise taxes The South printed millions of dollars of paper currency: What did this cause? Economically, the South was ruined because of the inflation caused by the printing of money When the north printed money, inflation did not hurt them as much because they had more gold to back it up These bills were called greenbacks, which is what we still have today

    49. Political Issues Despite the victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, Antietam, and other major battles, Abraham Lincoln fought for his political life He faced some serious doubts facing the 1864 election especially after Draft Riots swept the country and his Emancipation Proclamation When Sherman captured Atlanta, and when Grant took command of the Union forces things brightened He defeated George McClellan in the election and by the time he took his second oath of office, the war was nearly at an end

    50. Shermans March to the Sea

    51. The Actual March Sherman wasted little time on his march, destroying everything in his path His 60,000 men divided themselves into two columns, 20 miles apart, and caused over $100 million worth of damage They ripped up railroad tracks (Shermans neckties), burned cotton, took livestock, and gained the bitter hatred of Southerners When he took Savannah on Christmas Day, he offered it to Lincoln as a present

    52. At last the End. After Sherman had ransacked Georgia and South Carolina, Grant finally broke through Lees lines at Petersburg Grant chased Lees army to the small village of Appomattox Court House, VA Lee realized his time was up because his men had no food, supplies, and only had 10,000 men left. Grant gave Lee kind terms of surrender: men could keep their horses, officers their side arms, and Grant gave him rations for the men

    53. Aftermath Overall, more than 600,000 people lost their lives during the Civil War The amount of damage was in the billions Even more than 140 years later, the wounds caused during the war havent completely healed Lincoln was assassinated less than one week after the surrender at Appomattox while attending a play at Fords Theater in Washington With him went any sense of political stability, and the nation faced the already difficult notion of reconstructing the South with a controversial new President, Andrew Johnson

    54. Andrew Johnsons Issues Lincolns successor, Andrew Johnson was the last person that expected to become President, and he had problems right away First of all, he was from the South Secondly, he was a former Democrat who despised the planter class in the South So no one trusted him Democrats treated him like a traitor and Republicans didnt listen to him He wanted to follow Lincolns plans for Reconstruction, although some of them went with Lincoln when he died