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The Civil War

The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War United States History

  2. Problems in the Union • Compromise of 1850 • Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Dred Scott Decision • Kansas – Nebraska Act • Harper’s Ferry • Sectionalism • Presidential Election of 1860

  3. Northern Republicans • Abolitionists wanted to end slavery everywhere • Many Northerners who were against slavery joined the new Republican party

  4. Southern Beliefs • End of slavery and the Southern way of life • Southern leaders felt that states had supreme power – they entered the Union voluntarily, and they should be able to leave it voluntarily • Decided to secede, or withdraw, from the Union

  5. Presidential Election of 1860 • 1860: Presidential Election • 4 candidates: • Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas • Southern Democrats: John Breckinridge • Constitutional Union: John Bell • Republican: Abraham Lincoln • South said if Lincoln was elected, it was their duty to secede Lincoln Douglas

  6. Presidential Election of 1860 • Lincoln won with 59% of the electoral vote and 39.5% of the popular vote

  7. Presidential Election of 1860 Sectionalism – excessive regard for local interest

  8. Sectionalism An exaggerated devotion to the interests of a region

  9. Presidential Election of 1860 • Most Southerners believed Lincoln was an abolitionist • Felt secession was their only choice • Used the Declaration of Independence to support their argument: • “…it is the right of the people to alter or abolish…” a government that denies the rights of its citizens.

  10. 1860 • Lincoln is elected President • Southern states believed they had a right to leave the Union, or secede, from the U.S. • President Lincoln said they had no right to leave it and vowed he would preserve the nation at all costs

  11. To withdraw formally from membership in an organization, association, or alliance Secede

  12. Confederacy is Formed • The states that withdrew from the Union met in Montgomery, Alabama • The new nation will be called the Confederate States of America (CSA) • The new constitution gives states more power and guaranteed the protection of slavery

  13. Confederate (Southern) States • Alabama • Arkansas • Florida • Georgia • Louisiana • Mississippi • North Carolina • South Carolina • Tennessee • Texas • Virginia

  14. The southern states that seceded from the United States beginning in 1861 Confederacy

  15. New Government • Jefferson Davis is elected the President of The Confederate States of America • Alexander Stephens was chosen as Vice President

  16. Union (Northern) States • California • Connecticut • Delaware • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Maine • Maryland *** • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Missouri *** • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New York • Ohio • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • Vermont • West Virginia • Wisconsin *** Slave states, but they did not secede

  17. Lincoln’s Plan • Cut the Confederacy in two by capturing the Mississippi River • Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia • Blockade the Confederate coastline

  18. Battle of Fort Sumter, 1861 • Where the American Civil War began • Decades of growing strife between North and South erupted in civil war on April 12, 1861 • Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor • Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later • Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back

  19. 1861 • Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Blockade against Southern ports • Believed the war would last about 90 days • Lee accepts command of the Confederate military

  20. Battle of Bull Run, 1861 • First major battle of the Civil War • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate General) shot and had arm amputated • Union retreated to the safety of Washington

  21. 1862 • Naval warfare changed • When the war began, naval battles were fought in wooden ships • In months, they were experimenting with ironclad ships, submarines, and torpedoes • New Orleans taken over by Union

  22. Battle of Antietam, 1862 • First battle to take place on Union soil • Bloodiest one day battle in American history • 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours • Led to Abraham Lincoln's issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

  23. 1863 • Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation • U.S. Congress enacts a draft

  24. Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 • Battle with the largest number of casualties • Between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties • Turning point of the Civil War – North has more man power

  25. Gettysburg Address, 1863 • Lasted less than three minutes, • Principles of human equality in the Declaration of Independence • Proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union started by the secession crisis • Birth of freedom "that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, ensuring that democracy would remain a viable form of government and creating a nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant.” • Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality.

  26. Battle of Vicksburg, 1863 • Major battle for the control of the Mississippi River • North wins

  27. 1864 • Ulysses S. Grant • General Grant appointed commander of the U.S. • Atlanta is captured

  28. Sherman’s March to the Sea • Sherman's troops captured the city of Atlanta, Georgia • Sherman's forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property on the way to the Atlantic Ocean • Destroyed much of the South's physical and psychological capacity to wage war

  29. Lincoln is Re-elected • On November 8, Lincoln won by more than 400,000 popular votes • Lincoln was the first president to be re-elected since Andrew Jackson

  30. Surrender at Appomattox • Lee’s men would not be imprisoned or prosecuted for treason • Grant also allowed the defeated men to take home their horses and mules to carry out the spring planting and provided Lee with a supply of food rations for his starving army • Lee said it would have a very happy effect among the men and do much toward reconciling the country

  31. Lincoln is Assassinated • April 14, 1865 • 5 days after Lee surrendered • Planned and carried out by John Wilkes Booth

  32. 1865 • Congress approves 13th amendment • Confederate Capital, Richmond, evacuated • Lincoln’s killer, Booth, is shot and killed • 13th amendment ratified, slavery is abolished

  33. An addition to a formal document such as a constitution Amendment

  34. President Union Confederacy Jefferson Davis Abraham Lincoln

  35. Capital Union Confederacy Richmond, VA Washington D.C.

  36. Population Union Confederacy 9 million people 3.5 million were slaves • 22 million people • More people to pay taxes and fight

  37. Colors Union Confederacy Gray Blue

  38. Names Union Confederacy Confederate States of America CSA Rebels South • United States of America • U.S.A. • Yankees • North

  39. Military Leaders Union Confederacy Robert E. Lee (commander) George Pickett Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Albert Sydney Johnston • Ulysses S. Grant (commander) • George McClellan • George Meade • William Sherman

  40. Military Forces Union Confederacy Fighting on familiar land More experienced soldiers Better trained military Better leaders Defense Not very experienced Poorly trained army Offense

  41. Crops Union Confederacy Grew cotton Food shortages Grew food

  42. Industry Union Confederacy 19% of all factories 10% of all skilled workers Had to make it or buy from Europe • 81% of all factories • 90% of all skilled workers

  43. Government Union Confederacy Newly formed government Heavy emphasis on states’ rights Difficult for President to centralize power Established government

  44. Transportation Union Confederacy 9,000 miles of railroad tracks Small navy 22,000 miles of railroad tracks Navy Merchant Marines Canals

  45. Finances - Money Union Confederacy Controlled 30% of nation’s wealth Financial crisis: keeps printing money with nothing to backit up Controlled 70% of nation’s wealth

  46. Feelings towards War Union Confederacy Felt the war would protect their way of life More unity More support Not everyone supported the war Children dying

  47. Armies Union Confederacy Easy to get recruits at first Over 18 Eventually had to draft soldiers Could hire a substitute If you had more than 20 slaves • Easy to get recruits at first • Over 18 • Eventually had to draft soldiers • Could hire a substitute • If you paid $300

  48. Casualties (Deaths) Union Confederacy Killed in action: 94,000 Deaths from Diseases: 164,000 TOTAL: 258,000 Killed in action: 110,070 Deaths from Diseases: 250,152 TOTAL: 360,222