The Civil War 8.2.9 analyze in economic terns why slavery flourished in the South as opposed to the North. 8.5.6 classify the characteristics of major historical events into causes and effects 8.4.7 recognize the impact major court decisions have had on American life 8.4.5 identify how conditions, actions, and motivations contributed to conflict and cooperation between states, regions, and nations.
Sectional Differences • North: Industry and Immigration • South: Agriculture and Slavery • Missouri Compromise: (1820) Kept the balance of power in the Senate between free/slave states. p. 382 • Missouri became slave state & Maine a free state • “Mason-Dixon Line”
Compromising… • Compromise of 1850: • To please the North, California would be admitted as a free state, and slave trade would be abolished in Washington, D.C. • To please the South, Congress would not pass any laws regarding slavery for the rest of the territories won from Mexico, and Congress would pass a stronger law to help slaveholders.
The Fugitive Slave Act • The law came from the Compromise of 1850…Senator Stephen A. Douglas • Accused fugitives could be held without an arrest warrant. • They had no right to a jury trial. (federal commissioner ruled on each case) • Northerners were required to help capture runaways. • Southern slave catchers were able to roam the North looking for slaves. • How could this become a problem?
Kansas-Nebraska Act • The Fugitive Slave Act and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin had heightened tensions between the North and South. • Senator Douglas tried to calm tensions by proposing to organize the Nebraska Territory. (Nebraska and Kansas) • Popular sovereignty should be used to decide whether a territory becomes free or slave. • If the bill passed, it would mean destruction of the Missouri Compromise…why?
Bleeding Kansas • Caused by passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. • Election of 1855: There were more proslavery than antislavery settlers in the Kansas Territory. • After 5,000 residents of neighboring Missouri came and voted illegally, the Kansas legislature was filled with proslavery representatives. • Settlers on both sides armed themselves… • Civil War broke out in Kansas and continued for three years.
Rally Cries • Bleeding Kansas and a violent attack in the Senate, “Bleeding Sumner,” became rallying cries for antislavery Northerners. • Antislavery forces united and the Republican Party was born. • The Republican Party became a major force in the North.
Dred Scott v. Sandford • John and Irene Emerson lived in Missouri, a slave state. John worked for the military, so he frequently traveled and took Dred Scott, his slave, with him. • After Emerson’s death, Dred Scott sued for his freedom since Emerson had taken him to a free state…Illinois. • Roger Taney, Supreme Court Justice, and the court said that Scott was property and he could never be a citizen.
Trouble Still Brewing… • John Brown: murdered proslavery settlers in Kansas and wanted to provoke a slave uprising. • October 16, 1859, Brown and 18 followers- 13 whites and 5 blacks- captured the Harpers Ferry arsenal. • Brown and six others were captured and ten were killed. • Brown was tried for murder and treason. • Sentence: death by hanging (abolitionists rang bells)
Election of 1860 • Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln • Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas • What do we know about these two candidates and what does this say about our country? • Lincoln won the election!!!
Battle of Ft. Sumter April 12, 1861 • Pgs. 513-514 • Once Lincoln had been elected as President, South Carolina seceded and Ft. Sumter was attacked by Southern military. • The Union military unit surrendered • Lincoln called on 75,000 militia men for a 90 day deployment to put down the uprising.
Northern Strategy • The North adopted the Anaconda Plan: • Blockade the Southern coast • Control the Mississippi River • Capture Richmond, Virginia • The Southern capitol • First Bull Run • Fought at Manassas, Virginia on July 16, 1861 • First major battle of the Civil War • A surprising Southern victory
The Southern Invasion • February, 1862, Ulysses S. Grant took control of two major forts in Tennessee, Fort Henry and Fort Donelson (Page 524) • This gave the North control of the Cumberland River. • A week after these victories, Northern troops marched into Nashville.
Union Victories Continue • The Battle of Shiloh (April 6, 1862) • Fought in Corinth, Tennessee • The Union lost 14,000 soldiers • The Confederacy lost 11,000 • Fall of New Orleans (April 25, 1862) • Admiral David Farragut, an East Tennessean, took New Orleans with a naval force. • Most of the Mississippi River was now in Union hands.
Southern Victories in the East • Seven Days’ Battles • Union tried to take Richmond, Virginia in June of 1862. • They failed, and casualties were horrific. • Second Battle of Bull Run (August, 1862) • Confederate victory; ended Union threat in Virginia
Battle of Antietam • Lee invaded Maryland in September of 1862 • A battle broke out near Sharpsburg, Maryland at Antietam Creek on September 17, 1862. • This battle was the bloodiest battle up to this point. • Neither side won a victory, although 23,000 men were dead. • Lee went back to the South, and General McClellan, the Union commander, did not pursue him.
The Emancipation Proclamation • Signed after Lee’s army retreated on January 1, 1863 • Freed all slaves in Confederate held territory • Not Maryland, WV, Missouri, Tennessee, and others • Was not intended as a social move, but rather an economic strategy • Emancipating the slaves was designed to harm the South’s economy…not to free the slaves.
The War Affects Society • There were lasting social effects • The North and the South began conscripting, or drafting, people to serve in the military • There were also economic effects • Look at the chart on page 545.
The End of the War • The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1, 1863) pg. 560 • Lee tried to invade the North one more time • Ran in to Union troops in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. • The South was defeated • Over 50,000 men died at Gettysburg • General Lee lost the battle and would never recover from this loss. He would also never invade the North again. • Gettysburg Address pg. 563
The End of the War • Battle Map pg. 553 • The Battle of Vicksburg (May, 1863) • Once Vicksburg fell, the North controlled the Mississippi River • Sherman’s March to the Sea • General Sherman, a Union general, marched his troops from Tennessee to Atlanta and on to Savannah. He destroyed everything in his path. • Atlanta Fell in Sept., 1864. Savannah fell in Dec., 1864.
The End of the War • Bloody fighting continued in Northern Virginia through most of 1864 with Lee continuing to lose more and more soldiers. • In April, 1865, Richmond fell to Grant’s forces. By April 3, 1865, Lincoln walked down the streets of Richmond, Virginia
The End of the War • On April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee met General Ulysses S. Grant to surrender in a living room in the small community of Appomattox Court House. • Story of Wilmer and Virginia McLean
The War in Numbers • Civil War: deadliest war in American history • 4 years • 620,000 soldiers died • 360,000 Union • 260,000 Confederacy • 275,000 Union soldiers wounded • 100,000 Confederate soldiers wounded • Many suffered health problems for the rest of their lives.
The South in Ruins • War brought economic disaster to South. • Farms and plantations were destroyed. • 40% of livestock was killed • 50% of farm machinery wrecked • Factories were demolished and thousands of miles of railroad tracks were torn up. • Before the war, the South accounted for 30% of nation’s wealth. After the war, it accounted for only 12%. • The economic gap between North and South would last for decades.
Lincoln Assassination • April 14, 1865, five days after Lee’s surrender, President Lincoln was shot while watching a play at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. • Lincoln was carried to a nearby house where he died the next morning. (1st President to be assassinated.) • His attacker was John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate supporter. • Booth escaped the theater and was killed by troops 11 days later.
A Nation Transformed • It was now clear that the states did not have the power to secede. • The United States became a union. • National government expanded. • National currency • Income tax • Federal banking system • Funded railroads, gave western land to settlers, and provided for state colleges
Thirteenth Amendment • January 1865: Congress passed the 13th amendment to the Constitution to end slavery. • It was ratified, or approved, by 27 states, including 8 in the South. • Slavery was now banned in the United States.
Rebuilding the Nation • Reconstruction 1865-1877: the time period after the Civil War, which was a time for rebuilding and reunifying our nation. • Reconstruction had started with President Lincoln promising to unify the nation “with malice [harm] toward none, with charity for all.” (2nd Inaugural) • Lincoln wanted to treat the South with respect • Pardon Confederate officials • Allow Confederate states to send representatives to Congress
Reconstruction • Do you think everyone agreed with Lincoln’s view of how the South should be treated? Why? • When Lincoln was killed, Vice-President Andrew Johnson became President. (Tennessee) • Johnson believed Reconstruction was the job of the President, not Congress. • Johnson required only Southern states meet the conditions of his Reconstruction plan. Why?
Andrew Johnson • Johnson’s main goal was to have the Southern states readmitted to the Union as quickly as possible. • He believed that the southern states should have the right to address former slaves’ rights, not the federal government. • Black Codes: laws in southern states that limited the freedom of formerly enslaved people • Written proof of employment • No meetings in unsupervised groups or carry guns
Radical Republicans • Favored using federal power to promote citizenship for freed African Americans. • Wanted to make the South a region of small farms, free schools, and equality for all citizens. • Republicans were shocked when Johnson vetoed a bill that would grant citizenship to everyone born in the United States regardless of their race…except Native Americans. • 14th Amendment passed: citizenship…not voting rights.
Radical Reconstruction • 14th amendment also declared that any state that kept African Americans from voting would lose representatives in Congress. What would this mean for the South? • Johnson and every Confederate state except Tennessee refused to support the 14th amendment. • Reconstruction Acts of 1867:Before Southern states could rejoin the Union they must: • Approve new state constitutions giving all men right to vote • ratify the 14th amendment
Johnson is Impeached! • Johnson fought many changes made by the Radical Republicans. • Tenure of Office Act: prohibited the President from firing government officials without Senate approval. • Johnson fired his secretary of war the following year. • Three days later, the House impeached the president. • The case moved to Senate for trial…acquitted by one vote!
Racism • Sharecropping: • Farmers rented land on credit • Landowner provided tools and seed • Farmers gave a share of their crops to landowner • Most sharecroppers were freed African Americans and most made little to no money. • Ku Klux Klan 1866: racist/terrorist group who wanted to restore Democratic control of the South and keep former slaves powerless. • They existed in almost every Southern State. They kept Republicans away from the polls.
End of Reconstruction • 1877: federal troops left the South and Southerners gained back control of their region. • Ulysses S. Grant elected President in 1868 (Rep.) • 15th Amendment: voting rights • Panic of 1873: banks closed, stock market collapsed • Compromise of 1877: Republican Rutherford Hayes became President. Pg. 587