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The Civil War

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The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War

  2. The Union The Confederacy Presidents of the Opposing Sides

  3. Lincoln’s Aims and Actions • PRESERVE THE UNION • “Nothing more than Shay’s Rebellion or the Whiskey Rebellion” • Constitutional issue – Not a war over slavery • Calls out state militias • Increases the size of the Navy • Naval Blockade of South • Increased military spending without Congress’ okay

  4. Lincoln’s Aims and Actions • Habeas Corpus Suspended • Lincoln has Southern sympathizers arrested in areas not in rebellion • Declares martial law, which leads to the arrests of thousands suspected of disloyalty • Lincoln did this to ensure Maryland’s loyalty • Between 15,000-20,000 arrested

  5. Constitutional Questions • Was Lincoln’s expansion of executive power constitutional? • Did Lincoln’s actions fall under the scope of wartime powers? • Did Northerners sympathizing with South deserve civil rights limitations? • Did Lincoln set a precedent?

  6. Homestead Act of 1862 Government offered 160 acres of land for a cheap price, often for free, to promote westward settlement Morrill Land Grant Act Federal Government gave land to the states and territories for agriculture, engineering, and military science colleges (development of state universities) Other Government Actions

  7. North Larger population 90% of railroads Industrialization South Self sufficient in food Best military minds of 19th Century Fighting on “home turf” Don’t have to worry about supply lines Resources

  8. The Major Battles

  9. Single bloodiest day in American Military History 5,000+ dead 17,000+ wounded Union could’ve ended war, but Gen. McClellan allowed Lee to retreat Battle of Antietam (1862) Bloody Lane

  10. Gettysburg (1863) • Most costly battle of war • Three Day Battle • In total over 50,000 dead and wounded • Last time Confederacy attempted to attack Union Open field amputation

  11. Emancipation Proclamation • Freed all the slaves in areas still in rebellion against the Union • Symbolic • Union could not enforce the proclamation • Changes the goal of the war • Humanitarian objective

  12. Gettysburg Address • Lincoln summarizes the meaning of the civil war “Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. “Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. “But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

  13. The Soldiers: Human Devastation

  14. Over 180,000 African Americans join Union Army. Over 85% of eligible Blacks join Union army The Soldiers: Blacks Troops

  15. Blacks Fighting in the Civil War • This is what Blacks were fighting about:

  16. Many women, particularly in South had to become head of their household Widowocracy South become matriarchal society of widows Some 400 women fought in the war dressed as men Many acted as scouts and spies Belle Boyd Francis Clalin Women in the Civil War

  17. Women in the Civil War: Nursing • Clara Barton • Founds Red Cross • “Ambulance after ambulance drove up with our wounded…Under every shed and tree, the tables were carried for amputating the limbs…The blood lay in puddles in the grove; the groans of the dying and complaints of those undergoing amputation were horrible.” ~Janie Smith, North Carolinian

  18. Sherman’s March to the Sea • Decisive theatre at the end of the war • Complete and total destruction of the South • “The fields were trampled down and the road was lined with carcasses of horses, hogs, and cattle that the invaders, unable either to consume or to carry with them, had wantonly shot down to starve our people and prevent them from making their crops. The stench in some places was unbearable.”

  19. Sherman’s March to the Sea

  20. Surrender at Appomattox • South had been fighting defensive war since Gettysburg • Lee surrenders to Grant at the Appomattox courthouse

  21. Thanksgiving was created as a National Holiday in November 1863 to lift the moral in the North. Thanksgiving disappeared for a while and returned under FDR during the Great Depression Civil War Tidbits

  22. Civil War Tidbits • Government levied an income tax for the first time • Excise tax on cigarettes and tobacco • US Secret Service was created to stop counterfeit currency • Sinking of a ship by a submarine