Important Battles & Events REFRESHER! The Civil War
The Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 • Took place between the Antietam Creek & the town of Sharpsburg, Md. • Battle ended in a draw, but Confederate forces withdrew first • Called the “Bloodiest Day of the War” • 23,000 deaths/casualties • More soldiers killed in this battle than in any other American war before…
Emancipation Proclamation September 1862 • President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 following the Battle of Antietam • The document stated that if the Confederacy surrendered, they could keep their slaves. • Failure to surrender by January 1, 1863 meant that all slaves in rebelling states would be freed. • Lincoln hoped the CSA would surrender & end the war
Purpose: to gain supplies for the Confederate Army, and to capture a major Union city Robert E. Lee’s troops ran into George Meade’s troops in a small Pennsylvania town called Gettysburg. The UNION won this battle after 3 long days There were 51,000 deaths and many more injuries. Gettysburg was the turning point in the war; the Union was now confident that they would win the war. The Battle of Gettysburg July 1, 2, & 3 1863
Chickamauga September 19 – 20, 1863 • Took place at Chickamauga Creek in Georgia • Just over the Georgia border from Tennessee. • The Confederates won the battle. • Second bloodiest battle of the war with over 34,000 casualties • The Confederate Army did not follow up on the Union retreat, allowing the Union to capture Chattanooga in November, and set up for the March on Atlanta.
Union Blockade of Southern Ports • The purpose of the blockade was to stop resources (weapons, ammunition, clothing, and food) from entering or leaving the South. • It was effective in that it stopped European trade, forcing the Southern states to manufacture their own implements of war.
Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign began in the Spring of 1864, and lasted for 4 ½ months. • Battles along the way: Dalton, Resaca, Pickets Mill, Kennesaw Mountain • Atlanta was a target for several reasons • It was the 2nd largest city in the Confederacy • It was a railroad and manufacturing hub, provide the Confederate Army with much needed supplies • Sherman’s army occupied Atlanta on September 2, 1864 • The soldiers looted the city and set it on fire on November 15th destroying approximately 30% of the city The Atlanta Campaign & Sherman’s March to the Sea
November 15 – December 21, 1864 • Sherman divided his army into 2 columns and began to march towards the final destination in GA Savannah • As they moved along the countryside, the Union forces torched and destroyed everything of war making ability in their sight • Known as “Total War” or a “Scorched Earth Policy” • Purpose of this march was to cause the Confederate Army to surrender • The Civil War will end on April 9, 1865 with General Lee’s surrender to General Grant at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia. • Lincoln will be assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 Sherman’s march to the sea
A military prison in Georgia operated by the Confederate Army • Housed captured Union soldiers • Approximately 45,000 men were sent here • Close to 13,000 died here • Highest death rate of any Civil War prison • Conditions were horrible • Overcrowded, exposure to the elements, insects, disease and malnutrition were some of the problems the prisoners faced Andersonville