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Federal Aviation Regulations

Federal Aviation Regulations

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Federal Aviation Regulations

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  1. AF 202 – Chris Dimoulis Federal Aviation Regulations

  2. Objectives • General Contents of FARs • How to search/use the FARs • Necessary FAR part 91 Regulation scenarios

  3. General Contents of FARs

  4. Code of Federal Regulations • The Federal Aviation Regulations are part of the much larger Code of Federal Regulations • Title 6 – Domestic security • Title 39 – Postal service • Title 19 – Customs • Title 14 – Aeronautics and Space (FARs)

  5. CFR Title 14 • Parts 1-199 – Federal Aviation Administration/Department of Transportation • Parts 200-399 – Commercial Operations and Economic Factors • Parts 400-1199 – Commercial Space Travel • Parts 1200-1299 - NASA

  6. Your FARs • 1 – Definitions and Abbreviations • 43 – Maintenance • 61 – Pilot Certification • 67 – Medical Cert • 71 – Airspace • 73 – Special Use AS • 91 – Flight Rules • 97 – Inst. Procedure • 103 – Ultralight • 105 – Parachute • 119 – Air Carriers • 135 – On Demand • 136 – Air Tours • 137 – Ag. Ops • 141 – Pilot Schools • 142 – Training Centers • 830 – NTSB Accidents

  7. How to Search/Use FARs

  8. Part 1 • 1.1 – General Definitions • Altitude Engine/Sea Level Engine • Commercial Operator • Major Alteration/Major Repair • Large Aircraft • Critical Altitude

  9. Part 1 • 1.2 – Abbreviation and Symbols • AGL • ICAO • NM • RCLS • Vs • Vx

  10. Part 43 - Maintenance • What is good for us to know? • 43.3 – Persons authorized to perform maintenance (incl. Preventative Maintenance) • 43.5 – Approval for return to service after maintenance • 43.11 – Records for Inspections • DON”T FORGET THE APPENDICIES • Appendix A to Part 43 – What is Preventative Maintenance!

  11. Part 43 – Preventative Maintenance • Landing gear tires • Service strut • Wheel Bearings • Replace safety wiring/cotter keys • Refill hydraulic fluid • Small fairing repairs • Replacing side windows • Replace Seat Belts • Replace seats • Replace cowling • Replace spark plugs • Replace pre-fab fuel lines • Replace oil filter • Replace tray mounted navigation and communication equipment

  12. Part 61 – Certification • Alcohol Offenses (non-flying) • Must report DUI • Medical Certificates • Change of Name • Change of Address • Logbooks • SIC Qualifications

  13. Part 61 • Certification/Privileges/Limitations of: • Student Pilots • Recreational Pilots • Sport Pilots • Private Pilots • Commercial Pilots • Airline Transport Pilots • Flight Instructors • Ground Instructors

  14. Part 61 – The SFAR • What is a SFAR? • SFAR No.73 to Part 61 • R-22/R-44 Special training • Need special training • Need Log book endorsement • Don’t forget to look at the SFARs!

  15. Part 67 – Medical Standards • 67.7 – You give consent for the FAA to look at your driving record • Regulations for Medical Certificates • First Class • Second class • Third Class

  16. Part 71 & 73 – Airspace • Not too much information on Airspace or special use airspace • Defines class A but refers readers to Part 91 for other airspace information • Part 73 defines using agency and controlling agency, but very little again.

  17. Part 103 & 105 • Part 103 – Ultralight Vehicles • Like part 91 for Ultralight Vehicles only 95% smaller. • Cannot operate in Class D, C, B, and of course A. • Part 105 – Parachute Operations • Like part 91 for parachute operations • Required cloud clearance and visibility • No drunk skydiving.

  18. Commercial Operators • 119 – Certification • 121 – Domestic and Flag (Airlines) • 125 – Passenger capacity > 20 • 129 – Foreign Air Carriers • 135 – On Demand/Commuter

  19. Scenarios: FAR Part 91

  20. Applicability • Most parts have an applicability section. • Part 91 Applies to Aircraft • Who does it not apply to? • Kites • Model rockets • Unmanned free balloons

  21. Part 101 • Can operate a kite as long as… • Less than 500 feet above the ground • More than 500 feet from a cloud • Visibility must be VFR • More than 5 miles from an airport • No night kite flying without “obstruction lighting”

  22. Part 101 • Launching model Amateur Rockets • Launched in a suborbital trajectory • Cannot launch into foreign territory • Must be unmanned • Not at aircraft

  23. Scenario: Fly By Egging • Student Pilot Bob is frustrated with his instructor. Knowing his instructor is not home, on his next solo flight bob decides to drop a carton of eggs on his instructor’s house.

  24. 91.15 • Cannot drop objects out the airplane window unless reasonable precautions have been taken to avoid injury or damage to persons or property. • $100 word of the day: Defenestrate • To throw through or out a window (usual throwing a person)

  25. Scenario • Co-Pilot Bob was sneaking small bottles of liquor from the flight attendant’s cart to help him through the grueling 16 hour flight home from Rome. He tried to hide it as best he could from the captain and the plane landed without any major issues. He rush home in a taxi as quick as possible knowing as long as he got home without being caught he’d be safe.

  26. 91.17 • We all have heard the rules for drinking • 8 hours bottle to throttle • No operating while under the influence • No greater than .04 BAC • Did you know that if the FAA has reason to believe that you violated any of those they can request a test from you for up to 4 HOURS after acting as a crewmember?

  27. Scenario • Pilot Bob had to a get a new job and is working for some shady start up airline. Prior to an IFR flight, pilot Bob refused to let an old man on the airplane because he had a pacemaker in his heart. He claimed the electronics would mess with the instrumentation. There’s a reg about that!

  28. 91.21 • Portable Electronic devices are prohibited on Air Carriers and IFR flights • Exceptions: • Portable voice recorders • Hearing Aids • Heart Pacemakers • Electric Shavers (For all those time you need it) • Anything the pilot/operator allows

  29. Scenario • Pilot Bob has picked up sight seeing flights. A family of four wants to go sight seeing but there’s only room for 3 people in Bob’s C-172. Bob informs them that their youngest can sit on mom or dad’s lap since she is only 2 years old.

  30. 91.107 • Passengers must wear seatbelts on taxi, takeoff, and landing • Exceptions: • Held by an adult if he/she has not reached 2nd birthday • Skydiving

  31. Scenario • Pilot Bob sees Pilot Joe heading out for a sightseeing flight. He arranges with pilot Joe to fly formation during the sight seeing tour. Hopefully the added excitement will get him better tips!

  32. 91.111 • Formation flight must be arranged with each PIC • No formation flight allowed when carrying passengers for hire

  33. Scenario • Pilot Bob is flying his usual sight seeing route. A hot air balloon happens to be along his path right over one of the best views of the flight. To get their attention, Bob flashes his landing light to signal for them to get out of his way.

  34. 91.113 • Right of way priority: • Aircraft in distress • Balloon • Glider • Aircraft towing/re-fueling midair • Airship • Other engine driven aircraft

  35. Scenario • A major freight train crash happened 10 miles from the airport. Seeing news crews come to the airport, pilot Bob offers his services. He loads them in his plane and takes off immediately. Bob flies straight for the site of the crash giving the camera man a great close up aerial view.

  36. 91.137 • There are 3 reasons a NOTAM will be filed for disaster/hazard areas • Protect persons from the hazard • Provide a safe area for disaster relief • Prevent unsafe aerial traffic congestion • There are exceptions for 2 & 3 • Flying law enforcement • IFR flight plan • Media personal (MUST FILE FLIGHT PLAN)

  37. Other Flight Restrictions • 91.138 – Disasters in Hawaii • 91.139 – Emergency Air Traffic Rules • 91.141 – Presidential and public figures • 91.143 – Space flight Operations • 91.144 – Abnormally high barometric pressures – above 31 inches

  38. Scenario • Pilot Bob bought another plane he outfitted for skydivers. While he was told to bring the sky divers up to 12,500 he thought he’d give them a treat and brought them up to 16,000 before letting them jump.

  39. 91.211 & AC 105-2c • Supplemental Oxygen is needed: • Above 12,500 crew must use if longer than 30 min • Above 14,000 crew must use • Above 15,000 passengers must be offered • AC105-2c • Provides guidance for skydivers • Requires oxygen above 15,000 feet

  40. Scenario • Pilot Bob’s Altimeter stopped working in his skydiving plane. Luckily he has a wrist watch that give him his altitude! So he pulled out the altimeter, labeled it inoperative, and made an entry in the log book. Now he’s good to go!

  41. 91.213 • You cannot operate with inoperative equipment. • Exceptions: • Minimum Equipment List • No MEL: • Not on VFR Day • Not required per 91.205 • Not required on aircrafts equipment list

  42. Minimum Equipment List • An MEL does NOT mean a list of the minimum items that need to be working • If an item is not working, the MEL will tell you what action needs to be taken and what limitations that could mean. • Keeps larger aircraft from excessive down time

  43. Scenario • Pilot Bob’s sight seeing plane has been neglected for about a year now since his skydiving business has been doing so well. Suddenly Bob has a sightseeing customer so he fires it up and takes them for a ride.

  44. 91.409, 411, 413, 207 • Need Required inspections • Annual – 12 Calendar months • 100 hour – only for hire (100 tach hours) • Pitot/Static – 24 Calendar Months (IFR) • Transponder – 24 Calendar Months (IFR) • ELT – 12 months • ELT Battery – Replace after 1 hour cumulative use/half battery life

  45. Scenario • After being hounded by the FAA most of his career, pilot Bob decided to move to Alaska where he felt he could do better business. He opened up a small 135 operation. On his first flight, the passengers and their gear, however, were slightly above gross weight. Bob turned a blind eye thinking it would be fine.

  46. 91.323 • In reality you cannot operate a plane over gross weight • However Alaska is special and so there are provisions • Need to be 135 • No more than 115% max gross weight • No more than 12,500 lbs. • But you do need to get it approved…

  47. NTSB 830

  48. NTSB 830 - Definitions • Accident • An occurrence between the time any person boards the aircraft intended for flight and all such persons have disembarked where…1) anyone suffers death or serious injury or2) the aircraft receives substantial damage

  49. NTSB 830 - Definitions • Incident • Any occurrence other than an accident that affects or could affect the safety of operations. • Fatal Injury • Any injury which results in death within 30 days of the accident

  50. NTSB 830 - Definitions • Serious Injury (choose 1) • Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours within 7 days of injury • Results in fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of toes, fingers or nose) • Severe hemorrhages, nerve, muscle or tendon damage • Involves any internal organ • Involves 2nd or 3rd degree burns or any burn over more than 5% of the body