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ITS and Commercial Vehicle Operations

ITS and Commercial Vehicle Operations

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ITS and Commercial Vehicle Operations

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  1. ITS and Commercial Vehicle Operations CEE 582 Ed McCormack

  2. What is ITS CVO? Partnership of the public and private sectors focused on developing ways to improve freight movementNationallyInternationallyIntermodallyWith emphasis on technology and process re-engineering.

  3. CVO (i.e. Trucks) in Perspective Nationally 7.8 million commercial trucks, driven 0.2 trillion miles and which carry 75% all the nation’s freight (in value)

  4. ITS CVO Programs Involve Many Players • State Agencies • Carriers • Technology & Service Providers • Professional & Trade Associations • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) • Border Enforcement Agencies • Canada/Mexico

  5. CVO - Interstate Trucking • Commercial trucking operates across state lines • Each state has its own laws and taxes • Within federal limitations on interstate commerce • For trucks state borders are a similar to national borders for people

  6. State Regulations • Vehicle size and weight limits • Fuel tax • Vehicle registration • Weight distance taxes • Operating authority (proof of insurance, business competition) • Temporary versus annual permits • Safety – vehicle inspections

  7. Trucks do not Operate like Cars • To enter Washington a trucker needs • Vehicle licensing, permits • Fuel license (IFTA) • Single state registration • Have to stop at ports of entry, weigh stations, and for roadside inspections • Are inspected for mechanical safety at terminals • Their books can be audited

  8. Truck Weights • Truckers want to fill trucks because they make more per load but all states regulate weight because but overweight trucks: • Greatly accelerated pavement damage • Have problems with bridges • Need greater turning radii • Have safety and public perceptions concerns

  9. “SUPERLOAD” Electric Generator Needs Oerweight Permit Weight: 1,064,000 lb (482,622 kg) Axles : 22 Tires : 140 Height: 16’ 0” (4.88 m) Width : 16’ 10” (5.13 m) Length: 264’ 0” (80.47 m)

  10. Different states – different laws

  11. Regulation Requires Enforcement • Each trucking firm has to file taxes in each state in which it operates • Paperwork is enormous • Enforcement is expensive for both trucking firms and states

  12. Results of Enforcement • Taxes owed depend on the mileage driven in each state • Trucking firms must track all mileage

  13. Clearinghouses Make it Easier • IRP • International Registration Plan • IFTA • International Fuel Tax Agreement • CVSA • Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance • Motor Carrier Safety Assurance Program

  14. Enforcement • At weigh stations • At roadside stops • By audit • By inspection at the maintenance facility

  15. ITS • ITS is designed to make it still easier • Use electronics and databases to • Make administration / enforcement of laws easier • Reduce paperwork handling costs / duplication • Allow concentration of enforcement effort on “bad” trucks

  16. CVISN • Commercial Vehicles Information System Network • Part of national program to encourage use of ITS to improve performance of CVO • Washington is a leading state

  17. What is CVISN? • CVISN is a collection of information systems and communications networks • CVISN provides a framework that enables the government, motor carriers, and others engaged in CVO to exchange information and conduct business transactions electronically

  18. CVISN Benefits of CVISN Deployment • Safety (top priority) • Cost Savings (second priority) • Customer Satisfaction • Other Indirect Benefits – Mobility, Environment • Predominate use is at weigh stations

  19. Traditional Commercial Vehicle Enforcement Sites TO STATIC SCALE AND INSPECTION STATION OPEN/CLOSED SIGN Open Sign MAINLINE

  20. Traditional Enforcement • More trucks arrive than scales can process quickly • Shut off scales (miss illegals at the back of convoys) • Back trucks onto freeway (safety hazard) • Turn “open” sign on & off (random results)

  21. Modern Scale System (1) • Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) tag attached to truck • Tag relates to database • Registration tax status • Including allowable weights • Fuel tax status • Last safety inspection • Company safety record • Permits

  22. Modern Scale System (2) • Truck runs over scale (weigh in motion) • Truck AVI tag is read • Look up table compares database information to weights • Decision is made to bring in / pass the truck

  23. Commercial Vehicles Systems: Weigh-in-Motion TRACKING SENSORS SENSORS AND ELECTRONICS TO STATIC SCALE AND INSPECTION STATION OPEN/CLOSED SIGN AVI NOTIFICATION STATION AVI NOTIFICATION STATION WIM Scales PRECLEARED TRUCKS CONTINUE ON MAINLINE

  24. AVI Tag Used in Washington • Transponder at 916 MHz tag • Cost $50 in Washington State • 5 year battery life • Red or green light with a beep • Active tag (as opposedto passive) • Dedicated Short Range Communications devices(DSRC)

  25. WIM Scale Technology • Types of scales • Bending plate • Deep pit load cell • Piezo cable • Capacitance mat /strip • Piezo quartz • Fiber optics • Bridge WIM • Culvert WIM (CULWAY) • Buried steel frame / strain system • (virtual WIM)

  26. WIM • All WIM scales suffer from the same limitations – dynamics (bouncing wheels) • Different designs do have advantages / disadvantages based on • Cost • Accuracy • Expected lifespan

  27. WIM • Consequently: • WIM can NOT be used directly for enforcement. • It can only be used to sort probable over-weights from not likely over weights

  28. WIM • The key is reducing vehicle dynamics • Next best alternative – account for dynamics with multiple sensors – longer time on the scale

  29. WIM Scales • Ramp sorter • Main line sorter

  30. Ramp Sorter Scale WIM Scale By-pass Lane Directional Sign Enforcement Scale House

  31. Ramp Scales • Slower speed = more time on scale = better accuracy • Scales can be repaired and maintained more easily • Allows easier selection of trucks

  32. Ramp Scales • Extra ramps (by-pass lanes) require land and paving = expensive • Requires even “good” trucks to slow down and enter scale site

  33. Directional Sign WIM Scale Scale House AVI Readers Mainline Sorter Scale

  34. Main Line Scales • Do not need to slow down trucks • Less disruption to trucking / roadway • Can reduce size of weight station ramps (lower cost) • Increased risk of “evasion” through by-pass • Intentional • Unintentional

  35. Main Line Scales • Easier to retrofit existing scale sites • More difficult to install and maintain • Subject to greater level of dynamic impacts • Harder to communicate with drivers • Officers can’t examine passing trucks

  36. AVI Tags Issues • One way or two way? • How do you signal the trucker? • In vehicle tag? • Overhead sign? • Roadside VMS? • Some combination? • Do you store credentials electronically on the tag?

  37. AVI Tag • How do you connect the tag ID to the various database records? • Modify each existing database? • Creation of new database? • Who’s credentials are you using (this trip)? • Independent trucker working for major carrier • Can the legacy database be changed?

  38. AVI Tag Readers • Operational speed • Speed of vehicle • Speed of transaction • Connection to databases • Connection to WIM device • Need to track truck from one location to another

  39. Commercial Vehicles Systems: Weigh-in-Motion TRACKING SENSORS SENSORS AND ELECTRONICS TO STATIC SCALE AND INSPECTION STATION OPEN/CLOSED SIGN AVI NOTIFICATION STATION AVI NOTIFICATION STATION WIM Scales PRECLEARED TRUCKS CONTINUE ON MAINLINE

  40. Who uses CVISN? – Most States

  41. WIM In Washington

  42. CVISN Benefits • American Trucking Association • Cost Benefit analysis (before and after CVISN) resulted in a 16 to 1 return on investment to the motor carrier • Washington State • IT Feasibility Study and Cost Benefit Analysis found for every dollar spent on CVISN, the citizens received $1.28 in return benefits

  43. Database Connections / Architecture • Does the roadside reader connect to the DOL database directly? • Does the DOL database download the necessary data to the enforcement site? • What about when the “home” IRP state is not the state with the enforcement location? • Are there security concerns with making the DOL data accessible?

  44. Interstate CVO • Advantages: • Screening increases the effectiveness of officers • Decreases the time delay on legal truckers • Decreases emissions and noise • Improves fuel usage • Lowers merging / diverging movements • Allows more thorough credentials check