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Popular Culture. Popular Culture. Popular culture Consists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to ever-changing norms Large heterogeneous groups Often highly individualistic and groups are constantly changing; media-influenced
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Popular Culture • Popular culture • Consists of large masses of people who conform to and prescribe to ever-changing norms • Large heterogeneous groups • Often highly individualistic and groups are constantly changing; media-influenced • Pronounced division of labor leading to establishment of specialized professions • Police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order
Differences between popular and folk culture • Popular culture • Money based economy prevails • Replacing folk culture in industrialized countries and many developing nations • Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent • Item is more quickly or cheaply produced • Easier or time-saving to use • Lends prestige to owner
Placelessness • Edward Relph • The loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next • Ethnocide – Wade Davis & Endangered Cultures
Cultural Landscape • Carl Sauer • Reflects the values, norms, and aesthetics of a culture
Local & Popular Culture Seen in the Cultural Landscape Cultural landscapes are so similar because: Architecture forms + planning ideas have diffused around the world. Individual businesses + products are so widespread they impact all places The borrowing of idealized landscape images promotes a blurring of place distinctiveness
Diffusion of Popular Culture Rapid Diffusion of Clothes Characterized by income and job characteristics Improved communication Exposure to folk dress due to increased travel + television Jeans-know why + how jeans became a part of popular culture
Role of TV in diffusing Popular Culture Significant custom because: Most popular leisure activity Most important means by which culture is diffused
Globalization: • The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems? Threat to Folk Culture: Rising income increases demand for items valued in popular culture Can lead to domination of folk culture Loss of traditional values (clothing) Change in traditional role of women-How? Can also cause problems in less developed nations-increase in prostitution
Globalization of Popular Culture Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism Threatens LDC’s independence Seen as a new type of economic + cultural imperialism Allow governments of LDC to censor shows and/or only program shows appropriate to traditional values
Environmental Impact of Popular Culture Modifies nature Uniform landscapes – seen to generate product recognition + greater consumption
Negative Environmental Impacts (Environmental Degradation) Increased demand for natural resources Depletion of resources and/or extinction of species Inefficient use of resources Pollution Popular culture produces a lot of waste Folk culture can also negatively impact the environment by ignoring natural processes
Homework Questions • Use the following slides to answer these questions on your own paper. You do not need to print the slides. There are more questions on the last slide. • How is evidence of folk culture seen in popular culture activities - food, clothing, sports? • Find examples of how popular culture replaces indigenous folk culture?
Games People Play • Rural & Frontier America (Before 1850) • Local, Unorganized • Running, Wrestling, Weight Lifting, Shooting • Native Americans • Shinny (field hockey) • Kickball • Lacrosse
Diffusion and sports: soccer • English, Scots, Vikings, Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Chinese, Japanese, Toltecs, Native Americans • Folk origin: 11th century England • Village-wide contests • Banned between late 1300s and 1600
Diffusion and sports: soccer • Transition to popular culture • Industrial Revolution: more time, income • Professional soccer leagues (1863) • Standardized rules • Distinguished from rugby
Diffusion and sports: soccer • Spread by contagious diffusion • Exchange students from Netherlands • English engineers to Spain • Expatriates throughout British Empire • Rugby modified in U.S.: American football • Rapid spread through television
Diffusion and sports: baseball • Based on British “rounders” • 1846: first game with U.S. rules: leisure game for wealthy • Contagious diffusion via Union Army • 1871: first professional league • 1903: first “World” Series
Diffusion and sports: baseball • Relocation diffusion • Via military: Japan, Caribbean • Via elite students: Latin America • Shifting center of population • New leagues; real World Series?
Australia Iowa Canada Bueos, AiresArgentina
Taiwan Hong Kong Venice London
McDonalds Photobucket Cannes, Fr Santiago, Chile Amsterdam Athens Bangkok
Krakow, Poland Netherlands Netherlands Estonia Malaysia
McDonald's New ZealandKiwiburger - A hamburger with a fried egg and slice of beet McDonald's UruguayMcHuevo - A hamburger with a poached egg on top McDonald's IndiaMaharaja Mac"two all lamb patties, special sauce, lettuce, cheese pickles, onions on a sesame seed bun."Veggie nuggets (with masala and chili dipping sauces) McDonalds Around the World McDonald's JapanTeriyaki McBurgerGreen Tea ShakeFrench Fries With Seaweed Flavouring (nori)(also in curry, mexican, and barbecue)Chicken Tatsuta Burger (a grilled breast of chicken with a sort of ginger-soy-mayo sauce!)Macaroni and Cheese Burger McDonald's ThailandSamurai Pork Burger - A sandwich marinated with teriyaki sauce.Sweet Corn Pie http://www.tikifish.com/mcdonalds.html
McDonald's Hong KongCurry Potato PieRed Bean SundaeShake Shake Fries McDonald's IrelandShamrock Shake(although these have been available in the past in Canada around St. Paddy's Day,.) McDonald's ChileMcPaltatomatoes, avocado,mayonnaise, onions and mustard McDonalds Around the World McDonald's Sabah & Malaysia McEgg (not a mcmuffin, a BURGER) Fried Chicken Pineapple Pie McDonalds Mexico McBurrito a la Mexicana McNifica McDonald's PhilippinesMcSpaghetti - Pasta in a sauce with frankfurter bits
McDonalds Around the World • Why did McDonalds not diffuse to Russia until after 1990? • Which countries are labeled as formerly having McDonalds? • Explain possible reasons McDonalds has not diffused to sub-Saharan African countries? • Explain the type of diffusion. • Why do you think South Africa is the only sub-Saharan Africa country with McDonalds?